Vice-Admiralty Courts Abroad

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Office of the Vice-Admiralty Courts Abroad
Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom from 1837 to 1952.png
Seal of the Vice-Admiralty Court
Office overview
Formed1662
Dissolved1890
Superseding department
JurisdictionEngland Government of the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of Great Britain Government of the Kingdom of Great Britain
United Kingdom Government of the United Kingdom
HeadquartersWorldwide
Office executive
  • Vice-Admiral and Judge of the Vice-Admiralty Court.
Parent OfficeJudicial Department

The Vice-Admiralty Courts Abroad were created as the Kingdom of England then later the Kingdom of Great Britain acquired colonies and possessions beyond seas. They were a component part the British Admiralty's Judicial Department. In July 1890 those remaining courts abroad were abolished and renamed Colonial Courts of Admiralty.[1]

History

The earliest known was Vice-Admiralty Court abroad was that in Jamaica established in the year 1662. Some vice- admiralty courts which were created for prize purposes in the last century were suffered to expire after 1815. By appointing Vice-Admirals in the Colonies, and by constituting courts as Vice-Admiralty Courts, the terminology recognized that the existence and superiority of the "mother" court in the United Kingdom. Thus, the "vice" tag denoted that whilst it was a separate court, it was not equal to the "mother" court. In the case of the courts abroad, a right of appeal lay back to the British High Court of Admiralty, which further reinforced this superiority. In all respects, the court was an Imperial court rather than a local Colonial court.

Officers of the Court

Vice Admiral

Appointment of Vice Admiral. In any British Possession, where the Office of Vice Admiral is now or shall at any Time hereafter become vacant, the Governor of such Possession shall be ex officio Vice Admiral thereof, until a Notification is received in the Possession that a formal Appointment to that Office has been made by the Admiralty in the Manner herein-after mentioned.[2]

Judge

In any British Possession, where the Office of Judge of a Vice Admiralty Court is now or shall at any Time hereafter become vacant, the Chief Justice, or the Principal Judicial Officer, of such Possession, or the Person for the Time being lawfully authorized to act as such, shall be ex officio Judge of the Vice Admiralty Court, until a Notification is received in the Possession that a formal Appointment to that Office has been made by the Admiralty in the Manner herein-after mentioned.[3]

Registrar and Marshal

In any British Possession, where the Office of Registrar or Marshal of any Vice Admiralty Court is now or shall at any Time hereafter become vacant, the Judge of the Court may, with the Approval of the Governor, appoint some Person to the vacant Office, until a Notification is received in the Possession that a formal Appointment thereto has been made by the Admiralty in the Manner herein-after mentioned, and may, for good and reasonable Cause, to be approved by the Governor, remove the Person so appointed. The Judge may also appoint some Person to act as Registrar or Marshal during the temporary Absence of either of those Officers.[4]

Jurisdiction of the Court

Included:[5]

  1. The Matters in respect of which the Vice Admiralty Courts shall have Jurisdiction are as follow:
  2. Claims for Seamen's Wages:
  3. Claims for Master's Wages, and for his Disbursements on account of the Ship:
  4. Claims in respect of Pilotage:
  5. Claims in respect of Salvage of any Ship, or of Life or Goods therefrom:
  6. Claims in respect of Towage:
  7. Claims for Damage done by any Ship:
  8. Claims in respect of Bottomry or Respondentia Bonds:
  9. Claims in respect of any Mortgage where the Ship has been sold by a Decree of the Vice Admiralty Court, and the Proceeds are under its Control:
  10. Claims between the Owners of any Ship registered, in the Possession in which the Court is established, touching the Ownership, Possession, Employment, or Earnings of such Ship:
  11. Claims for Necessaries supplied, in the Possession in which the Court is established, to any Ship of which no Owner or Part Owner is domiciled within the Possession at the Time of the Necessaries being supplied:
  12. Claims in respect of the building, equipping, or repairing within any British Possession of any Ship of which no Owner or Part Owner is domiciled within the Possession at the Time of the Work being done.
  13. In all Cases of Breach of the Regulations and Instructions relating to Her Majesty's Navy at Sea:
  14. In all Matters arising out of Droits of Admiralty.

Locations of Vice Admiralty Courts

Africa

  1. Vice-Admiralty Court Gambia River[6]
  2. Vice-Admiralty Court Gold Coast[7]
  3. Vice-Admiralty Court Cape of Good Hope (1797-1803)[8]
  4. Vice-Admiralty Court Lagos[9]
  5. Vice-Admiralty Court Natal[10]
  6. Vice-Admiralty Court Sierra Leone (1803-1860?)

Atlantic and West Indies

  1. Vice-Admiralty Court Antigua Montserrat and Barbuda 1834 plus ditto[11]
  2. Vice-Admiralty Court Bahamas[12]
  3. Vice-Admiralty Court Barbados[13]
  4. Vice-Admiralty Court Berbice
  5. Vice-Admiralty Court Bermuda[14]
  6. Vice-Admiralty Court Demerera and Essequibo
  7. Vice-Admiralty Court Dominica (not a prize court)[15]
  8. Vice-Admiralty Court Falkland Islands[16]
  9. Vice-Admiralty Court Grenada (not a prize court)[17]
  10. Vice-Admiralty Court Gudaloupe (1811-1815)
  11. Vice-Admiralty Court Jamaica (1662-?)[18]
  12. Vice-Admiralty Court Lucia[19]
  13. Vice-Admiralty Court Montserrat,[20]
  14. Vice-Admiralty Court Nevis (not a prize court)[21]
  15. Vice-Admiralty Court St Christopher (not a prize court)[22]
  16. Vice-Admiralty Court St Vincents (not a prize court)[23]
  17. Vice-Admiralty Court Tobago[24]
  18. Vice-Admiralty Court Tortola
  19. Vice-Admiralty Court Trinidad (not a prize court)[25]
  20. Vice-Admiralty Court Virgin Islands (not a prize court)[26]

East Asia

  1. Vice-Admiralty Court Hong Kong[27]
  2. Vice-Admiralty Court Labuan[28]

East Indies

  1. Vice-Admiralty Court Bombay 1834
  2. Vice-Admiralty Calcutta
  3. Vice-Admiralty Court Ceylon[29]
  4. Vice-Admiralty Court Madras
  5. Vice-Admiralty Court Mauritius 1834 (not a prize court)[30]

Europe

  1. Vice-Admiralty Court Gibraltar (1746-?)[31]
  2. Vice-Admiralty Court Minorca (1746-1820)
  3. Vice-Admiralty Court Malta (1803-1834[32]

Latin America

  1. Vice-Admiralty Court British Guiana[33]
  2. Vice-Admiralty Court British Honduras[34]

North America

By year of establishment

  1. Vice-Admiralty Court Carolina (1694–1712)
  2. Vice-Admiralty Court New York, including, Connecticut and New Jersey (1694–1776)
  3. Vice-Admiralty Court Maryland (1697–1776)
  4. Vice-Admiralty Court Virginia (1697–1776)
  5. Vice-Admiralty Court Pennsylvania, including Delaware, (1697–1776)
  6. Vice-Admiralty Court Massachusetts (1698–1776)
  7. Vice-Admiralty Court New Hampshire (1699–1776)
  8. Vice-Admiralty Court Rhode Island (1704–1776)
  9. Vice-Admiralty Court South Carolina (1712–1776)
  10. Vice-Admiralty Court North Carolina (1729–1776)
  11. Vice-Admiralty Court Newfoundland (1736-?)[35]
  12. Vice-Admiralty Court Halifax (1749-1891) name changed to Vice-Admiralty Court, Nova Scotia[36]
  13. Vice-Admiralty Court Georgia (1754–1777)
  14. Vice-Admiralty Court Quebec (1764-1860)[37]
  15. Vice-Admiralty Court Vancouvers Island[38]
  16. Vice-Admiralty Court New Brunswick[39]
  17. Vice-Admiralty Court Prince Edward Island[40]
  18. Vice-Admiralty Court British Columbia[41]

Oceania

  1. Vice-Admiralty Court Fiji Islands
  2. Vice-Admiralty Court New South Wales (1788-1911)[42]
  3. Vice-Admiralty Court Van Diemens Land (1814-1823)
  4. Vice-Admiralty Court Western Australia (1830-1873)
  5. Vice-Admiralty Court New Zealand (1841-1890)[43]
  6. Vice-Admiralty Court Tasmania[44]
  7. Vice-Admiralty Court South Australia[45]
  8. Vice-Admiralty Court Victoria[46]
  9. Vice-Admiralty Court Queensland[47]

Footnote

  1. "Colonial Courts of Admiralty Act, 1890" (PDF). www.legislation.gov.uk. HM Government. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  2. Davis, Peter (2019). "26&27 Vict., c. 24. 8 June 1863". www.pdavis.nl. Netherlands: P. Davis.
  3. Davis
  4. Davis
  5. Davis
  6. The Encyclopedia Britannica Volume I. Cambridge, England: University of Cambridge. 1911. pp. 205–206.
  7. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  8. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  9. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  10. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  11. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  12. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  13. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  14. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  15. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  16. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  17. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  18. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  19. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  20. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  21. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  22. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  23. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  24. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  25. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  26. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  27. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  28. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  29. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  30. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  31. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  32. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  33. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  34. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  35. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  36. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  37. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  38. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  39. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  40. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  41. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  42. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  43. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  44. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  45. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  46. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.
  47. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911. pp.205-206.

Bibliography

  1. Davis, Peter (2019). "26&27 Vict., c. 24. 8 June 1863". www.pdavis.nl. Netherlands: P. Davis.
  2. The Encyclopedia Britannica Volume I. Cambridge, England: University of Cambridge. 31 May 1911. pp. 205–206.