Vice-Admiral of the Narrow Seas

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Office of the Vice-Admiral of the Narrow Seas
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Flag of the Kingdom of England
Reports toLord High Admiral, Board of Admiralty
NominatorMonarch of England, First Lord of the Admiralty
AppointerMonarch of England
Subject to formal approval by the King-in-Council
Term lengthNot fixed , (usually for life)
Inaugural holderVice-Admiral Sir John Pendagrast
Formation1412-1687

The Vice-Admiral of the Narrow Seas also known as the Vice-Admiral for the guard of the Narrow Seas [1] was a senior Royal Navy appointment. The post holder was chiefly responsible for the command of the English navy's Narrow Seas Squadron [2] also known as the Eastern Squadron [3] that operated in the two seas which lay between England and Kingdom of France (the English Channel particularly the Straits of Dover) and England and the Spanish Netherlands later the Dutch Republic (the southern North Sea) from 1412 to 1688.[4].

His subordinate units, establishments, and staff were sometimes initially known as the Command of the Narrow Seas later called the Narrow Seas Squadron.[5]

History

The first royal commission as Admiral to a naval officer was granted in 1303. By 1344 it was only used as a rank at sea for a captain in charge of a fleet or fleets.[6] In the fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the Kingdom of England claimed sovereignty over certain bodies of water close to the British Isles.Two seas those between the Kingdom of France and England (the English Channel particularly the Straits of Dover) and the Spanish Netherlands later the Dutch Republic and England (the southern North Sea). As a result of England's claim of these territorial waters there was an enforceable requirement placed on any foreign ships passing through the area to acknowledge all English warships. England also exercised control over all fishing rights within the same waters. Among the most important naval postings during these times was the Admiral of the Narrow Seas sometimes called the Rear-Admiral of the Narrow Seas to denote he was junior to the Lord Admiral of England these flag officers were formally appointed by the crown.[7] His responsibilities were to guard the narrow seas from foreign threats, protect English fishing vessels and enforce English sovereignty over said waters. Claims to the narrow seas lasted until the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland agreed to set a new three mile limit along with other European countries in 1822.[8]

Office holders

Vice-Admiral of the Narrow Seas
No. rank name date/s ref
1. Vice-Admiral Sir John Pendagrast 1412 [9]
office is presumed vacant (1413 – 1522)
2. Vice-Admiral William FitzWilliam 1523–1524 [10]
3. Vice-Admiral Sir Rees Mansell 1543–1544 [11]
4. Vice-Admiral Sir John Woodhouse 1544–1545 [12]
5. Vice-Admiral Sir Thomas Cotton 1549–1550 [13]
6. Vice-Admiral Sir Henry Dudley Jan–Nov, 1552 [14]
7. Vice-Admiral Sir John Malyn 1557–1558 [15]
8. Vice-Admiral Sir Thomas Cotton Aug–Sept, 1558
9. Vice-Admiral Sir Ralph Chamberlain Sept–Oct, 1558 [16]
10. Vice-Admiral Sir John Malyn Nov, 1558–Jan, 1559 [17]
11. Vice-Admiral Sir William Holstocke Aug, 1562–Oct, 1563 [18]
12. Vice-Admiral Sir Martin Frobisher Sept, 1589–1590 [19]
13. Vice-Admiral Sir Robert Mansell 1601–1602 [20][21]
14. Vice-Admiral Sir William Monson Aug, 1602–1603
15. Vice-Admiral Sir Francis Howard 1613–Jan, 1616 [22]
16. Vice-Admiral Robert Bertie, 3rd Earl of Lindsey 1635–1639 [23]
17. Vice-Admiral Sir John Pennington 1639–1640 [24]
18. Vice-Admiral Sir Thomas Rainsborough 1643–1644 [25]
18. Vice-Admiral of the Red Sir John Lawson 1665–1666 [26]
19. Vice-Admiral Sir William Poole 1679–1680
20. Vice-Admiral Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton 1685–1687 [27]

References

  1. Keeler, Mary Frear; Cole, Maija Jansson; Bidwell, William B. (1997). Commons Debates 1628. Boydell & Brewer. p. 210. ISBN 9781580460095.
  2. Winfield, Rif (2010). "Appendices: Appendix 1: English Naval vessels engaged in the action against the Armada 1588". British Warships in the Age of Sail 1603-1714: Design, Construction, Careers and Fates. Barnsley, England: Seaforth Publishing. p. 285. ISBN 9781783469246.
  3. Childs, David (2014). Pirate Nation: Elizabeth I and her Royal Sea Rovers. Barnsley, England: Seaforth Publishing. p. 141. ISBN 9781848322943.
  4. Blanchard, W. O. (September 1951). "The Narrow Seas". Journal of Geography. 50 (6): 221–230. doi:10.1080/00221345108982679. ISSN 0022-1341.
  5. Humble, Richard (1986). "Four Centuries of Sea Power 1509 to 1919". The rise and fall of the British Navy (1. publ. ed.). London: Macdonald Queen Anne Press. p. 35. ISBN 9780356122274.
  6. "History of Naval Ranks and Rates". www.navymuseum.co.nz. National Museum of the Royal New Zealand Navy. 10 November 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  7. Rodger, N.A.M. (1997). "Social History of Officers 1509-1603". The safeguard of the sea : a naval history of Britain. Vol 1., 660-1649. London, England: Penguin. p. 298. ISBN 9780140297249.
  8. "Narrow Seas - Oxford Reference - in The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea". oxfordreference.com. University of Oxford. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  9. Campbell, John (1812). Lives of the British Admirals: Containing Also a New and Accurate Naval History, from the Earliest Periods. London, England: C. J. Barrinton. p. 245.
  10. Harding, Edward (1805). Naval Biography, Or, The History and Lives of Distinguished Characters in the British Navy, from the Earliest Period of History to the Present Time. London, England: John Scott. p. 185.
  11. Knighton, C. S.; Loades, David (2013). The Navy of Edward VI and Mary I. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 538. ISBN 9781409482406.
  12. Glasgow, Tom (January 1977). "VICE ADMIRAL WOODHOUSE AND SHIPKEEPING IN THE TUDOR NAVY". The Mariner's Mirror. 63 (3): 253–263. doi:10.1080/00253359.1977.10659032. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  13. Knighton, C. S.; Loades, David (2013). The Navy of Edward VI and Mary I. Farnham, England: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 538. ISBN 9781409482406.
  14. Loades, D. M.; Loades, David (1996). John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, 1504-1553. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. p. 58. ISBN 9780198201939.
  15. Glasgow, Tom (January 1970). "MATURING OF NAVAL ADMINISTRATION 1556–1564". The Mariner's Mirror. 56 (1): 11. doi:10.1080/00253359.1970.10658511.
  16. "CHAMBERLAIN, Sir Ralph (by 1523-70 or later), of Shirburn, Oxon. History of Parliament Online". www.historyofparliamentonline.org. The History of Parliament Trust 1964-2017.
  17. Knighton, C. S.; Loades, David (2013). The Navy of Edward VI and Mary I. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 558. ISBN 9781409482406.
  18. Knighton, C. S.; Loades, David (2013). The Navy of Edward VI and Mary I. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 552. ISBN 9781409482406.
  19. Knighton, C.S.; Loades, David (2011). The Navy of Edward VI and Mary I. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate for the Navy Records Society. p. 544. ISBN 9781409418474.
  20. Keeler, Mary Frear; Cole, Maija Jansson; Bidwell, William B. (1997). Commons Debates 1628. Boydell & Brewer. p. 210. ISBN 9781580460095.
  21. Stewart, William (2009). Admirals of the World: A Biographical Dictionary, 1500 to the Present. McFarland. p. 210. ISBN 9780786438099.
  22. "HOWARD, Sir Francis (1585-1651), of Sayes Court, Chertsey and Eastwick House, Great Bookham, Surr. | History of Parliament Online". www.historyofparliamentonline.org. The History of Parliament Trust 1964-2017. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
  23. Bruce, John; Hamilton, William Douglas; Lomas, Mrs Sophia Crawford (1865). Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, of the Reign of Charles I ...: 1635. Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, & Roberts. pp. 54–55.
  24. Stephen, Leslie (1894). Dictionary of National Biography, (37 ed.). London, England: Smith, Elder, & Company. p. 254.
  25. Jones, Whitney Richard David (2005). Thomas Rainborowe (c. 1610-1648): Civil War Seaman, Siegemaster and Radical. Woodbridge, England: Boydell Press. p. 17. ISBN 9781843831211.
  26. Baumber, Michael (1989). General-at-sea : Robert Blake and the seventeenth-century revolution in naval warfare (1. publ. ed.). London: J. Murray. p. 155. ISBN 9780719547065.
  27. Bays, John (2015). "Royal Bastards and Mistresses: The Shadow Courts of Restoration England". Charleston, Illinois, United States: Eastern Illinois University. p. 17. Retrieved 27 February 2019.