The Admiralty (1707-1799)

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Admiralty
Coat of Arms of Great Britain 1714 to 1801.png
Coat of Arms of HM Government
Government Department overview
Formed1707
Preceding Government Department
Dissolved1964
Superseding department
JurisdictionGovernment of the Kingdom of Great Britain
HeadquartersAdmiralty Building
Whitehall
London
Government Department executive
Parent Government DepartmentHM Government

The Admiralty previously called the Admiralty and Marine Affairs Office (1546-1707), was established in 1707 as a central government department of state of the Kingdom of Great Britain, and the Royal Navy's central command HQ.[1] The Admiralty differed from other British service departments in that it functioned as an operational authority, sometimes actually issuing direct orders to fleets, squadrons or ships at sea.

History

Naval operations in the War of the Spanish Succession (1702–13) were with the Dutch against the Spanish and French. They were at first focused on the acquisition of a Mediterranean base, culminating in an alliance with Portugal and the capture of Gibraltar (1704) and Port Mahon in Menorca (1708). In addition Newfoundland and Nova Scotia were obtained. Even so, freedom of action in the Mediterranean did not decide the war, although it gave the new Kingdom of Great Britain (created by the Union of England and Scotland in 1707) an advantage when negotiating the Peace of Utrecht, and made Britain a recognized great power. The British fleet ended Spanish occupation of Sicily in 1718 and in 1727 blockaded Panama.

The subsequent quarter-century of peace saw a few naval actions. The navy was used against Russia and Sweden in the Baltic from 1715 to 1727 to protect supplies of naval stores. It was used at the Cape Passaro in 1718, during the Great Northern War, and in the West Indies (1726). There was a war against Spain in 1739 over the slave trade. In 1745 the navy transported troops and stores to Scotland to defeat the Jacobite rising.

The War of Jenkins' Ear (1739–48) saw various naval operations in the Caribbean under different admirals against Spanish trade and possessions, before the war subsequently merged into the wider War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748). This, in turn, brought a new round of naval operations against France. In 1745 the navy twice defeated the French off Finisterre but their convoys escaped. The Navy also defended against invasion by Charles Edward Stuart the "Young Pretender". By the end of the war, the Navy was fully engaged in the worldwide protection of British trade.

The Seven Years' War (1756–63) began somewhat inauspiciously for the Navy, with a French siege of Menorca and the failure to relieve it. Menorca was lost but subsequent operations went more successfully (due more to government support and better strategic thinking, rather than admirals "encouraged" by Byng's example), and the British fleet won several victories. The French tried to invade Britain in 1759 but their force was defeated at Quiberon Bay. Spain entered the war against Britain in 1762 but lost Havana and Manila, though the latter was given back in exchange for Florida. The Treaty of Paris that ended the war left Britain with colonial gains, but isolated strategically.

At the beginning of the American Revolutionary War (1775–83), the Royal Navy dealt with the fledgling Continental Navy handily, destroying or capturing many of its vessels. France soon took the American side, and in 1778 a French fleet sailed for America, where it attempted to land at Rhode Island and nearly engaged with the British fleet before a storm intervened Spain and the Dutch Republic entered the war in 1780. Action shifted to the Caribbean, where there were a number of battles with varying results. The most important operation came in 1781 when, in the Battle of the Chesapeake, the British failed to lift the French blockade of Lord Cornwallis, resulting in a British surrender in the Battle of Yorktown. Although combat was over in North America, it continued in the Caribbean and India, where the British experienced both successes and failures. Though Menorca had been recaptured, it was returned to the Spanish.

Organization

Senior Leadership of the HM Naval Service

Senior Leadership during this period included a single naval lord of England the Lord Admiral he was responsible for formulating naval policy, directing the navy and operations. Below him were his two deputy's the Vice-Admiral of England responsible for naval operations and judicial administration together with the Lieutenant of the Admiralty in charge of civil administration of the navy. Below them sat the various operational commanders, the shore based commanders, the offices of the clerks of the kings marine, then later the council of the marine, the high court of the admiralty, the vice-admiralty courts and admiralty law system.

Office of the Lord High Admiral of Great Britain

Immediately below the Lord High Admiral of Great Britain is a deputy commander-in-chief was created the Vice-Admiral of Great Britain.

Office of the Vice-Admiral of Great Britain

The office of Vice-Admiral of England dates from 1399, following the 1707 union with Scotland his title was altered to Vice-Admiral of Great Britain was the second most powerful position in the Royal Navy, and until 1801 was officially called the Lieutenant of the Admiralty an older office that merged with this office in 1672.. Below him was his deputy the Rear-Admiral of Great Britain.

Office of the Rear-Admiral of Great Britain

The Office of the Rear-Admiral of England was established in 1683 and despite of the title, the Rear-Admiral of England was usually a full admiral. He is the deputy to the Vice-Admiral of England, who is in turn deputy to the Lord High Admiral of England. Following the 1707 union with Scotland the name of the office changed to Rear-Admiral of Great Britain.

Control and Direction of Naval Affairs, Operations and Policy

Prior to 1628 responsibility for the direction of naval affairs, operations and policy lay with the Office of the Lord Admiral of England later of Great Britain. This full responsibility then passed to the First Lord to the Admiraltyin 1690 when the First Lord became a British government minister of state. In the 18th century the structure naval affairs was thus, The English Cabinet then later British Cabinet formulated naval policy, the first lord of the admiralty carried out policy on behalf of the cabinet. The board of admiralty implemented the lord admirals then later first lords instructions, it controlled and directed the Royal Navy, the Royal Marines, the Sea Fencibles, the Impress Service and the Navy Board.[2] It was responsible for all naval operations involving formations and shore commands, it appointed commissioned officers and it appointed the principal officers and commissioners of the navy board including the principal officers of each dockyard.[3]

Office of the First Lord of the Admiralty

The official known as the First Lord of the Admiralty of England was a minister of state and member of the cabinet when the Admiralty and Marine Affairs Office was renamed as the Admiralty in 1707 at which point the ministers title changed to First Lord of the Admiralty of Great Britain. He was chairman and head of the Board of Admiralty

Board of Admiralty

The Board of Admiralty was established in 1628 when Charles I I put the office of Lord High Admiral into commission as that position was not always occupied. The purpose was to enable management of the day-to-day operational requirements of the Royal Navy; at this point administrative control of the navy was still the responsibility of the Navy office established earlier in 1546. This dual system remained in place until 1832, when the Board of Admiralty became the sole authority charged with both administrative and operational control of the navy when the Navy Office was abolished. The head of the board was an official known as the First Lord of the Admiralty he became a minister of state and member of the cabinet when the Admiralty and Marine Affairs Office was renamed as the Department of Admiralty in 1690.

Lord High Admirals Council

The Lord High Admirals Council was a series of councils appointed to advise and assist the Lord High Admiral of England and then later of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the direction of Naval Affairs also known as Council of the Lord High Admiral when the Board of Admiralty was not in commission the first series of councils took place between 1702-1708 and second and final series of councils took place from 1827-1828.

Departments and Offices of the Admiralty

The Admiralty Departments in the 18th century were distinct and component parts of the Department of Admiralty that were superintended by the Office of the Senior Naval Lord, later Office of the First Naval Lord and the Admiralty Secretariat. The departments prime responsibilities were the management of Admiralty head quarters buildings and staff and the management and provision of astronomy, charities, courts, education, hospitals, hydrography, impress service, legal, library, marines, marine pay, naval works, wills and pensions, records, secretarial duties, sea fencibles militia. These specialist departments changed their names and functions, and varied in number, from time to time. In 1805, for the first time, the additional 'Naval' Lords, who were described as 'Professional' Lords, were assigned to each of them responsibility for these departments under specific functional roles.

Admiralty Departments
  1. High Court of the Admiralty (1360–1875)
  2. Office of the Vice-Admiral of England (1399-1707)
  3. Office of the Judge of the High Court of Admiralty (1483-1875)
  4. Vice-Admiralty Courts (1536-1890)
  5. office of the Admiralty Proctor (1660-1870)
  6. Office of the Judge Advocate of the Fleet (1660-2008)
  7. Office of the Admiralty Advocate (1661-1885)
  8. Marine Office (1664-1755) renamed the Marine Department
  9. Head Messengers Office (1666-1870)
  10. Office of the Deputy Judge Advocate of the Fleet (1668-1870)
  11. Counsel to the Admiralty (1673-1995)
  12. Royal Observatory Greenwich (1675-1998)
  13. Porters Office (1676-1870)
  14. Victualling Office, (1683-1832)
  15. Transport Office, (1686-1717), (1796-1816)
  16. Admiralty Secretariat, (1660-1860)
  17. Greenwich Hospital Department (1692-1869)
  18. Necessary Woman's Office (1694-1865)
  19. Watchmens Office (1694-1832)
  20. Messengers Office (1694-1806)
  21. Register Office (1696–1715)
  22. Counsel for the Affairs of the Admiralty and Navy (1696-1832)
  23. House Keepers Office (1697-1800)
  24. Sixpenny Office (1696–1832)
  25. Gardner's Office (1700-1827)
  26. Marine Pay Office (1702-1754)
  27. Office of the Private Secretary to the Lord High Admiral (1702-1707).
  28. Office of the Assistant Secretary to the Admiralty (1702-1782)
  29. Office of the Solicitor to the Admiralty and Navy (1703-1828)
  30. Office of the Charity for Sea Officers Widows (1732-1836)
  31. Royal Naval Academy (1733-1837)
  32. Clerk of the Journals Office (1738-1741)
  33. Marine Department (1755-1809)
  34. Marine Pay Department (1755-1831)
  35. Royal Marine Office (1755-1964)
  36. Translators Office (1755-1869)
  37. Nautical Almanac Office (1765-present)
  38. Office of the Poor Knights of Windsor (1771-1833)
  39. Office of the Second Secretary to the Admiralty (1782-1857)
  40. Extra Messengers Office (1795-1806).
  41. Naval Works Department (1796-1815) superseded by the Department of the Surveyor of Buildings.
  42. Hydrographic Office (1796-1831)
  43. Sea Fencible's Department (1798-1813)

Operational Commands

Prior 1690 the Lord Admiral also acted as Admiral of the Fleet when he commanded an operation, his deputy was called the Vice-Admiral of the Fleet and his deputy the Rear-Admiral of the Fleet. An Office of the Admiral of the Fleet was established on a permanent basis from this date until 1998 when it became an honoury appointment. From the establishment of his office the Lord Admiral and his deputy's ceased to be a sea going command. During the 18th century new naval stations and squadrons were established they included the following:

Fleet Command

In 1685 the office of Admiral of the Fleet was created the office holder was the primary fleet commander of the British Navy.

Naval Commands Home and Overseas

The major operational commands during the 18th century were divided into geographical Naval Stations based in home waters and those overseas. These were supported by non combatant mainly defensive shore commands

Home Commands

  1. Irish Squadron. (1689-1731)
  2. Lord Admirals Squadron, (1546-1709)
  3. Downs Station, (1626-1834)
  4. Royal Flotilla (1660-1884)
  5. Portsmouth Station, (1667-1969)
  6. Channel Station, (1709-1854)
  7. Medway and Nore Station, (1714-1716, 1741-1799)
  8. Plymouth Station, (1743-1845)
  9. Leith Station, (1745-1825)
  10. Western Squadron, (1746-1854)
  11. North Sea Fleet, (1745–1815)
  12. Thames, Medway and Nore Station, (1746-48, 1757-1762)
  13. Ireland Station, (1758–1831)
  14. Nore Station, (1799–1834)

Overseas Commands

  1. Mediterranean Station (1654-1967)
  2. Jamaica Station (1655-1830)
  3. Kronshtadt Station (1724-1741)
  4. Newfoundland Station (1729-1830)
  5. Barbadoes and Leeward Islands Station (1743-1772)
  6. East Indies Station (1744-1832), (1867-1913), (1917-1958)
  7. North America Station, (1746-1783, 1800-1816)
  8. Halifax Station, (1755–1905)
  9. Weser, Elbe and Ems Station, (1758)
  10. Basque Roads Station, (1762)
  11. Nova Scotia and Saint Lawrence Station, (1762-1815)
  12. Leeward Islands Station (1772-1821)
  13. Lisbon Station (1779–1809, 1812-1841)
  14. Cape of Good Hope Station (1795-1803, 1806-1857, 1903-1919)

Special Assignment Commands

  1. Baltic Fleet, (1658-1812)
Size of the Royal Navy by Date
1760[4]
Type No
Ships of the Line 279
Ships of the Line (captured) 15
Frigates 82
Sloops 21
Armed Merchants 39
Fireships 27
Bomb Vessels 15
Hospital Ships 4
Yachts 5
Total in Commission 457
1799[5]
Type No
Ships of the Line 230
Ships of the Line (captured) 25
Frigates 234
Sloops 331
Brigs 54
Fire ships 34
Bomb Vessels 31
Hospital Ships 2
Yachts 5
Total in Commission 946

Shore Commands

The Vice-Admiralties of the Coast were official shore based posts established in maritime counties of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales . These admiralities were commanded by a Vice-Admiral of their particular stretch of coast, they were chiefly responsible for the judicial administration and naval defence of their respective county coast line. Prior to 1660 they were deputy shore commanders of the Office of the Lord High Admiral of England after 1660 they came under the control of the Board of Admiralty and by the 19th century the became a primarily ceremonial role . There were twenty six Vice-Admiralties responsible for England , five Vice-Admiralties responsible for Ireland, three Vice-Admiralties responsible for Scotland and six Vice-Admiralties responsible for Wales

Civil, Financial, and Logistical (Support)

Navy Board

Civil administration of the British Navy lay with the an executive committee called the Navy Board who were was based in the Navy Office, until 1628 following the creation the Board of Admiralty it was entirely independent of Admiralty until that date then became a subsidiary semi-independent board, a separate Navy Pay Office was also established that was semi-autonomous of the Navy Office.[6] The Board consisted of 3 subsidiary semi-independent boards the Transport Board, Sick and Hurt Board and Victualling Board each responsible for certain logistical functions. The Navy Board itself was directly responsible for building and repairing ships, dockyards and bases, the navy's expenses, salaries and wages, stores, equipment and clothes and the appointment of all warrant officers.[7]

Navy Office

The Navy Office and previously known as the Council of the Marine or Council of the Marine Causes was the government office charged with responsibility for day-to-day civil administration of the Navy Royal, (1578-1707) and then Royal Navy, (1707-1832). It was administered by the Navy Board.

Navy Pay Office

The Navy Pay Office was established in 1545 it was administered by the Treasurer of Marine Causes later known as the Treasurer of the Navy the pay office was autonomous of the council of the marine and later Navy Office it existed until 1832 when along with the Navy Office it was abolished its functions were absorbed into the Department of the Accountant-General of the Navy. It was administered by the Treasurer of the Navy.

Dockyards and shore facilities

The main naval dockyards already operational or constructed both at home and abroad are listed below. The management of the various yards was the responsibility of the various Master-Shipwrights until the introduction of Resident Commissioner's of the Navy in the early seventeenth century, the Master Shipwright then became their deputy. During this century two more dockyards were established in England and the first one overseas in the Caribbean.

Home Bases and Dockyards

  1. Portsmouth Dockyard (1496 – current)
  2. Woolwich Dockyard (1512 – 1869)
  3. Deptford Dockyard (1513 – 1869)
  4. Chatham Dockyard (1567-1983)
  5. Sheerness Dockyard (1665 – 1957)
  6. Deal Dockyard, (1672-1864)
  7. Plymouth Dockyard (1690 – current) later renamed Devonport Dockyard.
  8. Kinsale Dockyard (1694-1799)
  9. Milford Dockyard, (1797-1814)

Oversea bases and dockyards

  1. Bombay Dockyard, Bombay, India, (1670-1949) until 1811 operated by British East Indies Company.
  2. Jamaica Dockyard, Jamaica (1675-1729, 1749-1905)
  3. Cadiz Dockyard, (1694-1696)
  4. Gibraltar Dockyard, Gibraltar, (1704-1984)
  5. Lisbon Dockyard, (1704-1814)
  6. Port Mahon Dockyard, Menorca, Spain, (1708-1802)
  7. Barbados Dockyard, (1718-1905)
  8. Antigua Dockyard, (1728-1882)
  9. Port Antonio Dockyard, Jamaica, (1729-1749)
  10. Louisbourg Naval Shipyard, (1745-1768)
  11. Halifax Dockyard, Canada, (1759-1905)
  12. Navy Island Naval Shipyard, Canada, (1763-1822)
  13. New York Dockyard, (1775-1783)
  14. Martinique Naval Yard, (1775-1802)
  15. Kingston Naval Yard, Canada, (1788-1853)
  16. Naval Shipyards York, Upper Canada, (1790-1813)
  17. Malta Dockyard, (1791-1979)
  18. Toulon Dockyard, France, (1793-1794)
  19. Ajaccio Dockyard, Corsica, (1794-1799)
  20. Bermuda Dockyard, (1795–1951)
  21. Cape Town Dockyard, at Table Bay, Cape Town, Cape Colony, (1795-1814) staff and work transferred to Cape of Good Hope Dockyard
  22. Amherstburg Dockyard, Canada (1796-1813)
  23. Madras Dockyard, India, (1796-1813) staff and work transferred to Trincomalee Dockyard
  24. Cape Nicholas Naval Yard, at Cape Nicholas, Saint Domingue, (1798)

Medical Establishments

The Navy Pay Office was established in 1545 it was administered by the Treasurer of Marine Causes later known as the Treasurer of the Navy the pay office was autonomous of the council of the marine and later Navy Office it existed until 1832 when along with the Navy Office it was abolished its functions were absorbed into the Department of the Accountant-General of the Navy.

Sick and Hurt Board

The Sick and Hurt Board or formally known as the Commissioners for the care of Sick and Wounded Seamen and for the care of Prisoners of War were first appointed during the Dutch Wars. The board existed from 1692 until 1806, it was headquartered at the Sick and Hurt Office. London, England.

Sick and Hurt Office

The Sick and Hurt Office was responsible for provision of medical services to the Royal Navy. It was separate (but subsidiary) office of the Navy Office, supplying surgeons to naval ships, providing them with medicines and equipment, and running shore and ship hospitals; they were also responsible for prisoners of war.

Royal Naval Hospitals

Royal Naval Hospitals was a hospital operated by the British Royal Navy for the care and treatment of sick and injured naval personnel. A network of these establishments were situated across the globe to suit British interests. Royal Naval Hospitals were controlled by the Sick and Hurt Board from 1740 to 1806 and were part of the Medical Branch.

Naval Hospitals Great Britain
  1. Greenwich Hospital, London, (1692-1869)
  2. Royal Naval, Hospital, Portsmouth, (1753-1990)
  3. Royal Naval Hospital, Plymouth, (1760-1905)
  4. Royal Naval Hospital, Great Yarmouth, (1793-1957)
Naval Hospitals Overseas
  1. Royal Naval Hospital, Port Mahon, Minorca, (1711-1782)
  2. Royal Naval Hospital, Gibraltar, Gibraltar, (1741-1922)
  3. Royal Naval Hospital, Jamaica, Jamaica, (1743-1905)
  4. Royal Naval Hospital, Madras, India, (1745-1831)
  5. Royal Naval Hospital, Antigua — (1763-1825)
  6. Royal Naval Hospital, Long Island, New York, USA, (1779-1812)
  7. Royal Naval Hospital Halifax, Canada, (1782-1911)
  8. Royal Naval Hospital, St Johns, Canada, (1783-1939)

Transport Establishments

The Navy Pay Office was established in 1545 it was administered by the Treasurer of Marine Causes later known as the Treasurer of the Navy the pay office was autonomous of the council of the marine and later Navy Office it existed until 1832 when along with the Navy Office it was abolished its functions were absorbed into the Department of the Accountant-General of the Navy.

Transport Board

The Transport Board was the British Royal Navy organisation responsible for the transport of supplies and military. The Board was headquartered in the Transport Office wing of the Navy Office.

Transport Office

The Transport Office was the British Admiralty department responsible for the transport of supplies and military. The office was the headquarters of the Board of Transport the commission in charge of naval transportation, it was located at the Navy Office.

Transport Service

The Transport Service role, was responsible for “the hiring and appropriating of Ships and Vessels for the conveyance of Troops and Baggage, Victualling, Ordnance, Barrack, Commissariat, Naval and Military Stores of all kinds. It employed transport agents who represented the first quasi-professional specialisation among commissioned officers.The transport agents were uniformed Navy officers under the employ of the Transport Office.

Victualling Establishments

Victualling Board

The Victualling Board or formally known as the Commissioners for the Victualling of the Navy, was the executive board responsible under the Navy Board for victualling ships of the British Royal Navy. It oversaw the vast operation of providing naval personnel (140,000 men in 1810) with enough food, drink and supplies to keep them fighting fit, sometimes for months at a time, in whatever part of the globe they might be stationed. It existed from 1683 until 1832 when its function was first replaced by the Department of the Comptroller of Victualling and Transport Services until 1869 then that office was also abolished and replaced by the Victualling Department. The Victualling Board was headquartered at the Victualling Office.

Victualling Office

The Victualling Office was the British Navy Office department responsible for civil administration of Victualling Yards and the storing and supply of Naval Victuals for the Royal Navy from 1683 to 1832. The office was the headquarters of the Victualling Board.

Victualling Yards and Supply Depots

By the early eighteenth century, Victualling Yards of various sizes had been established alongside several Royal Naval Dockyards in Britain and abroad including:

  1. Victualling Yard, Dover (1544-1832)
  2. Victualling Yard, Deptford (1650-1961)
  3. Victualling Yard, Plymouth (1707-1992)
  4. Victualling Yard, Portsmouth (1756-1990s)
  5. Victualling Yard, Gibraltar (1795-1980s)
  6. Victualling Yard, Antigua (18th century)
  7. Victualling Yard, Port Royal Jamaica (18th century)

Legal (Support)

Judicial Department

At first there were three separate Admiralty courts (each with a presiding admiral) for three different sections of the country each responsible for judicial administration of the navy, but these were merged into one high Admiralty court in 1483 the court was initially administered by the High Admiral of England until the creation of the office of the Vice-Admiral of England in 1410 who became the High Admiral's deputy he then presided over the court system directly until 1483 when a Chief Judge of the high court was appointed responsible for the day-today proceedings of the court. The Vice-Admiral of England remained responsible for the direction of the high court and the chief judge and for all future appointments of the judge.

High Court of the Admiralty

The High Court of the Admiralty consisted of the office of the Chief Judge who was supported by various officials known as officers of the High Court of the Admiralty they included the Admiralty Advocate, the Marshall, the Notary Public, the Proctor, the Receiver of Droits and the Registrar.

High Court of the Admiralty(1483 – 1875)

Vice Admiralty Courts Great Britain and Ireland

Beginning in 1536 until 1835 there were 39 local courts of the admiralty administered by a Vice-Admiral in the maritime counties of England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales. In addition there were also Vice-Admiralty Courts established in colonial possessions abroad these Vice Admiralty Courts were juryless courts located in British colonies that were granted jurisdiction over local legal matters related to maritime activities, such as disputes between merchants and seamen.

Vice-Admiralty Courts Home

  1. Vice-Admiralty Courts England (1536-1890)
  2. Vice-Admiralty Courts Ireland (1536-1890)
  3. Vice-Admiralty Courts Scotland (1536-1890)
  4. Vice-Admiralty Courts Wales (1536-1890)

During the seventeenth century vie-admiralty courts abroad were established in North America in North America Carolina, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, including Connecticut, Pennsylvania, including Delaware and Virginia. In the West Indies in Barbados and Jamaica.

Vice Admiralty Courts British Colony's

The Vice-Admiralty Courts Abroad were created as the Kingdom of England then later the Kingdom of Great Britain acquired colonies and possessions overseas. During the seventeenth century colonial admiralty courts were established in North America in North America Carolina, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, including Connecticut, Pennsylvania, including Delaware and Virginia. In the West Indies in Barbados and Jamaica.

Naval Ordnance (Support)

Board of Ordnance

The Board of Ordnance was an executive committee of British government established in 1597 that consisted of principle officers headed by the Master-General of the Ordnance. Autonomous of the Board of Admiralty it managed the Ordnance Office that became a civil department of state from 1683 until 1855.

Ordnance Office

The Ordnance Office, was established c.1460 in 1597 a management body called the Board of Ordnance was established to control and direct the office. There was no standing army, and its principal duties were to supply guns, ammunition, stores and equipment to the King's Navy and Army. In 1683 this office became a civil department of state, under a Master General. It existed until 1855 when it was abolished and responsibility for the management and supply of ordnance transferred to the War Department.

Ordnance Yards and Stores

Below the Ordnance Office sat the various ordnance yards, gunpowder and magazine stores that were usually alongside the major naval dockyards

Home ordnance yards

  1. Gunwharf Portsmouth (1680 – 1855)
  2. Gun Wharf Woolwich (1540 – 1855)
  3. Gunwharf Deptford (1513 – 1869)
  4. Gun Wharf Chatham (1622 – 1855)

Gunpowder magazines stores

  1. Tower of London, London (1461 – 1855)

References

  1. Rylance-Watson, Alice (2019). "Heraldic Lion of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs Office". nationaltrustcollections.org.uk. The National Trust UK. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  2. Blake, Nicholas; Lawrence, Richard (2005). The Illustrated Companion to Nelson's Navy. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania, United States.: Stackpole Books. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-0-8117-3275-8.
  3. Blake and Lawrence. pp.8-9.
  4. Wilkinson, Clive (2004). The British Navy and the state in the eighteenth century (1. publ. ed.). Woodbridge [u.a.]: Boydell Press. p. 69. ISBN 9781843830429.
  5. Clarke, James Stanier; McArthur, John (Sep 2, 2010). The Naval Chronicle: Volume 1, January-July 1799: Containing a General and Biographical History of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom with a Variety of Original Papers on Nautical Subjects. Cambridge University Press. p. 292. ISBN 9781108018401.
  6. Blake, Nicholas; Lawrence, Richard (2005). The Illustrated Companion to Nelson's Navy. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania, United States.: Stackpole Books. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-8117-3275-8.
  7. Black and Lawrence. p.10.

Sources