Mary I of England

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Mary I
Queen of England and Ireland
Queen Consort of Spain
Mary I of England.jpg
Style:Her Majesty
Reign:19 July 1553 – 17 November 1558
(5 years, 121 days)
Predecessor:Lady Jane Grey or Edward VI of England.
Successor:Elizabeth I of England
Spouse:Philip II of Spain
Born:Mary Tudor
18 February 1516
Palace of Placentia
Greenwich, England
Died:17 November 1558 (aged 42)
St. James's Palace
London, England
Burial:14 December 1558
Westminster Abbey
Royal House:House of Tudor
Father:Henry VIII of England
Mother:Catherine of Aragon

Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Ireland from 19 July 1553 to 1558 and Queen Consort of Spain from 16 January 1553 to 17 November 1558. She was the oldest daughter of Henry VIII of England, and the only child of Catherine of Aragon who survived childhood.

Biography

Coat of Arms of Mary I of England.

Mary Tudor was born on 18 February 1516, in the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich. Unlike the other children of Catherine, she lived to be an adult. Her godfather was the famous Cardinal Thomas Wolsey. Although she was not the heir Henry VIII was looking for,ii she was loved by her parents. When she was about 11, Henry decided to divorce Mary's mother, Catherine of Aragon, so he could marry Anne Boleyn.

After Anne Boleyn had a daughter, Henry VIII distrusted Mary and thought that her behavior came from her mother. So he purposefully separated Mary and Catherine of Aragon. He also banished them both from court and he removed Mary from the line of succession. Mary had to become one of her servants. After Anne Boleyn was killed by the King, Mary's half-sister also became a servant. A month later, Henry VIII married Jane Seymour. Queen Jane gave birth to Edward, Prince of Wales. 9 days later, Queen Jane died.

Mary lost a faithful friend and also her pride. She had acknowledged her parents' marriage as invalid and herself an illegitimate daughter. The rest of Mary's life with Henry VIII gave her a quick succession of stepmothers. Henry VIII died soon after marrying his last wife, Catherine Parr. Henry had decided that the young prince was to succeed him. If he had no heirs then his older half-sister, Mary, was to be Queen.

If Mary did not produce a child, then Mary's half-sister, Elizabeth, was to be Queen. After Elizabeth and her heirs, would come Henry's sister Mary Tudor's side of the family.Edward succeeded to the throne as King of England and Ireland. Edward began to show signs of a coughing disease. Edward did not want Mary to succeed him. Edward went ahead with a plan to let his Protestant cousin Lady Jane Grey become Queen after he died. Lady Jane Grey was only queen of England for nine days. Mary executed Jane Grey and married Philip II of Spain.

Mary had two phantom pregnancies, but had no child. The phantom pregnancies were cancer in her liver. After Mary died Elizabeth succeeded to the throne, becoming the new Queen Elizabeth I of England.

Role

Elizabeth I was Head of State of the Kingdom of England and she controlled the Government of England through her Chief Minister of England. Her principal secretary was the Secretary of State of England. In her capacity as Commander-in-Chief of the English Armed Forces her principal commanders were the Lord Admiral of England who administered the Admiralty and Marine Affairs Office and commanded the Navy Royal on her behalf.

References