Lord High Admiral of England

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Office of the Lord High Admiral of England
Royal-Standard-of-England-and-Great-Britain-1603-to-1707.png
Standard of the Lord High Admiral at Sea 1603-1707
Admiralty and Marine Affairs Office
Member ofPrivy Council of England
Reports toMonarch of England
NominatorMonarch of England
AppointerMonarch of England
Subject to formal approval by the King-in-Council
Term lengthNot fixed
Inaugural holderJohn de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp de Warwick
Formation1603–1689

The Lord High Admiral of England informally also known as the Minister for the Marine [1] was first created in 1610 conferring an elevated appointment to the earlier office of Lord Admiral of England. Various English monarchs appointed officers with different titles in official documents of the time. The office existed until 8 March 1689 when it was placed in commission by the Board of Admiralty. On 22 May 1702 the Board of Admiralty was replaced by the Lord High Admirals Council an advisory committee set up and controlled by the English Cabinet, the Lord High Admiral chaired the council but he had no power to implement policy that lay with the Senior Naval member usually the Admiral of the Fleet, additionally the council consisted of other civil (Members of Parliament), senior (Civil Servants) and naval members (Vice-Admirals).

History

Flag of the Lord High Admiral when ashore

Between 1222 and 1360 only 4 men were conferred upon responsibility for the administration of the English Navy though each of them were styled differently as Admiral of England, (1223-1331). The first office High Admiral of England was constituted in 1360 when John de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp de Warwick was appointed High Admiral of England by Edward III as well as the first commission of Admiral of the Fleet, Admiral of the South, North and West.[2][3]

In 1386 Richard II appointed Richard FitzAlan,10th Earl of Arundel the first High Admiral of England, Ireland and Aquitaine by letters patent this title by name was conferred by different monarchs to eighteen other men until 1513 when Henry VIII ceased his claim on the French throne. Between 1405/06 and 1412 the two remaining regional naval commands under the Admiral of the North and Admiral of the West were unified with this office. to create a single Admiralty of England.[4]

During the reign of Henry VIII of England (1509–47) the Navy Royal had expanded to a point where it could not be to be managed by a single High/Lord Admiral of England alone, therefore day-today civil management of the navy was handed over to a committee called the Council of the Marine that later became known as the Navy Board that was headquartered at the Navy Office.

During the English Civil War (1642-1649) the Commonwealth and Protectorate period (1649-1660) and thereafter the office was replaced by a number pf parliamentary commissions and committees before being restored in 1684. After the Act of Union joining England with Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707 the office was almost permanently in commission with all naval affairs controlled by the Board of Admiralty until 1964.

Officer Holders

Style Flag Name Term Ref
Lord Admiral of England [5]
1 Lord High Admiral Royal-Standard-of-England-and-Great-Britain-1603-to-1707.png H. G. George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham 28 January 1610 - 23 August 1628 [6]
2 Lord High Admiral Royal-Standard-of-England-and-Great-Britain-1603-to-1707.png Rt. Hon. Algernon Percy, 10th Earl of Northumberland 13 April 1638 - 19 October 1642 [7]
3 Lord High Admiral Royal-Standard-of-England-and-Great-Britain-1603-to-1707.png H.G. Robert Rich, Earl of Warwick 7 December 1643 - 19 April 1645 [8]
4 Senior Member Flag of the Commonwealth of England and General at Sea 1649 to 1651.png Replaced by Parliamentary Admiralty Committee 19 April 1645 - 29 May 1648 [9]
5 Lord High Admiral Royal-Standard-of-England-and-Great-Britain-1603-to-1707.png Rt. Hon. Robert Rich, Earl of Warwick 29 May 1648 - 23 February 1649 [10]
6 Senior Member Flag of the Commonwealth of England and General at Sea 1649 to 1651.png Replaced by Council of State Committee on the Admiralty and Navy 23 February 1649 - 14 December 1652 [11]
7 Senior Member Flag of the Commonwealth of England and General at Sea 1649 to 1651.png Replaced by Committee on Admiralty Affairs 14 December 1652 - 28 July 1653 [12]
8 Senior Commissioner Flag of the General at Sea 1650 to 1659.gif Replaced by Admiralty Commission 28 July 1653 - 2 February 1660 [13]
9 Lord High Admiral Royal-Standard-of-England-and-Great-Britain-1603-to-1707.png H.R.H. Prince James, The Duke of York 29 January 1661 - 9 July 1673 [14]
8 Senior Naval Lord Flag of the Board of Admiralty 1690 to 19th century.gif Replaced by Board of Admiralty 9 July 1673 - 19 May 1684 [15]
10 Lord High Admiral Royal-Standard-of-England-and-Great-Britain-1603-to-1707.png H. M. King Charles II 19 May 1684 - 6 February 1685 [16]
11 Lord High Admiral Royal-Standard-of-England-and-Great-Britain-1603-to-1707.png H. M. King James I 6 February 1685 - 1688 [17]
12 Lord High Admiral Royal-Standard-of-England-and-Great-Britain-1603-to-1707.png H. M. King William III 1689 - 8 March 1689 [18]
13 Senior Naval Lord Flag of the Board of Admiralty 1690 to 19th century.gif Replaced by Board of Admiralty 8 March 1689- 22 May 1702 [19]
14 Senior Member Royal-Standard-of-England-and-Great-Britain-1603-to-1707.png Replaced by Lord High Admirals Council 22 May 1702 - 28 June 1707 [20]

Notes: Royal Standard of England 1603 to 1707 was the command flag of the monarch or their deputy the lord admiral when on board ship at sea.[21]

Footnotes

  1. Corbett, Sir Julian Stafford (1917). Drake and the Tudor Navy. London, England.: Longmans. p. 139.
  2. Perrin, William Gordon (1922). British Flags; Their Early History and their Developement at Sea, with an Account of the Origin of the Flag as a National Device. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 82.
  3. Higgins, Alexander Pearce; Colombos, Constantine John (1954). The International Law of the Sea. London, England: Longmans, Green. p. 13.
  4. Durston, Gregory (2017). The Admiralty Sessions, 1536-1834: Maritime Crime and the Silver Oar. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 4. ISBN 9781443873611.
  5. Rodger, N.A.M. (1997). The Admiralty. Lavenham: T. Dalton. pp. 1–51. ISBN 0900963948.
  6. Rodger. pp.1-2.
  7. Rodger. pp.1-2.
  8. Rodger. pp.1-2.
  9. Rodger. pp.1-2.
  10. Rodger. pp.1-2.
  11. Rodger. pp.1-2.
  12. Rodger. pp.1-2.
  13. Rodger. pp.1-2.
  14. Rodger. p.18.
  15. Rodger. p.18.
  16. Rodger. p.18.
  17. Rodger. p.18.
  18. Rodger. p.18.
  19. Rodger. p.18.
  20. Rodger. p.34.
  21. Perrin, W. G. (William Gordon) (1922). British flags, their early history, and their development at sea; with an account of the origin of the flag as a national device. Cambridge: Cambridge : The University Press. pp. 73–81.

Bibliography

  1. Durston, Gregory (2017). The Admiralty Sessions, 1536-1834: Maritime Crime and the Silver Oar. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 9781443873611.
  2. Higgins, Alexander Pearce; Colombos, Constantine John (1954). The International Law of the Sea. London, England: Longmans, Green.
  3. Perrin, William Gordon (1922). British Flags; Their Early History and their Developement at Sea, with an Account of the Origin of the Flag as a National Device. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive.
  4. Rodger, N.A.M. (1997). The Admiralty. Lavenham: Thomas Dalton. ISBN 0900963948.

Attribution

  1. The image of the flag of the Lord High Admiral of England and Admiralty is courtesy of Martin Grieve at Flags of the World.Info, available for re-use under their licence terms can be reproduced for non-commercial use. 23 August 2006. Source: https://fotw.info/flags/gb-lha.html