Lisbon Station

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Lisbon Station
Ensign of the Royal Navy animated.gif
Active1703–1809, 1815–1841
CountryUnited Kingdom
BranchNaval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Royal Navy
TypeNaval Station
RoleConvoy Protection
Evacuation Force
Part ofRoyal Navy
Garrison/HQLisbon Dockyard
Kingdom of Portugal
Battle honoursBattle of Porto Praya (1781)
Battle of Saldanha Bay (1781)
Battle of Corunna (1809)
Commanders
FirstVice-Admiral of the Blue: Sir George Byng
LastVice-Admiral of the White: Sir William Hall Gage

The Lisbon Station [1] also known as Lisbon Station and Coast of Spain [2] was a naval station of the British Royal Navy operating of the coast of Portugal from 1704-1809 when it was replaced by the Portugal Station, when that command was abolished in 1815 this station was reformed and remained active until 1841.

History

Initially established as a mobile squadron of the Royal Navy operating mainly off the coast of Portugal but also Spain during the as early as the mid 17th century. Following an English victory off Vigo in 1702 Portugal abandoned its alliance with France and entered into the Methuen Treaty with England in 1703. Subsequently Lisbon was used as a base by Queen Anne’s navy and served as a refitting base for the British navy many times in the next one hundred. and fifty years.

The station was involved in a number of engagements during the Anglo-Spanish War including the Action of 11 November 1779. It was particularity known for its involvement in Battle of Porto Praya, in April 1781 [3] as part of the Anglo-French Wars (1778–1783).

Later that same year, the squadron was ordered to capture the Dutch Colony of the Cape of Good Hope, eventually known as the Battle of Saldanha Bay, however, it failed to re-take the cape. Because of this, the squadron was disbanded in 1782 when Commodore Johnstone sought election as an MP. The Station was re-established in 1795 under the command of Vice-Admiral Sir George Vandeput to undertake convoy duties between England the Mediterranean and Lisbon.

In 1808, Admiral Vandeput was succeeded by Vice-Admiral Sir Charles Cotton who was charged with preparation of Lisbon harbor for the planned invasion the Iberian Peninsula later in the year. The Lisbon Squadron was also involved with the evacuation of Sir John Moore's army stuck in Galacia [4] following the Battle of Corunna.

In 1810, The Lisbon Station and its commander Admiral Cotton was relieved of command by Admiral Sir George Cranfield Berkeley in command of the new Portugal Station. In 1815 this station was reactivated under the command of Rear-Admiral Sir George H. Parker from 1815 until 1834. In early 1837, the station was under the temporary command of Rear-Admiral John Ommanney, until he was relieved as commander in chief by Vice-Admiral Sir William Hall Gage.

Gage was ordered, by the Admiralty, to undertake protection duties of Queen Maria II during the period known as the Liberal Wars, fought between progressive constitutionalists and authoritarian absolutists in Portugal over royal succession. The station ceased to be a command in 1841.

In Command

British 1st rate ship of the line on the river Tagus Lisbon Portugal c. 1834 by Thomas Buttersworth Jr. (British, 1807–1842)

Commander-in-Chief, Lisbon

Commander-in-Chief on the Lisbon Station

Second-in-Command, Lisbon Station

Components in this command

Lisbon Squadron

Lisbon Squadron
Date Ships of the Line Frigates Sloops Brigs Other Ships Total
June 1808 [5]
11
5
0
0
9
24
1833 [6]
4
1
2
1
0
8
1837 [7]
6
2
3
2
3
16

References

  1. Clarke, James Stanier; McArthur, John (2010). The Naval Chronicle: Volume 30, July–December 1813: Containing a General and Biographical History of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom with a Variety of Original Papers on Nautical Subjects. Cambridge University Press. p. 10. ISBN 9781108018692.
  2. Watson, Dr Graham. "QUEEN VICTORIA'S FLEET ON HER ACCESSION: THE STRENGTH AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE ROYAL NAVY 1837". naval-history.net. Gordon Smith, 19 September 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
  3. Stevens, Benjamin Franklin (1888). The Campaign in Virginia, 1781. p. 440.
  4. Napier, William Francis Patrick (1873). History of the war in the Peninsula and the south of France, from the year 1807 to the year 1814. New York : D. & J. Sadlier. p. 121.
  5. Fremont-Barnes, Gregory. (5 December, 2007). The Royal Navy 1793–1815. Battle Orders Book 31. Osprey Publishing. Oxford, England. ISBN. 9781846031380. p. 13.
  6. "Distribution of the Royal Navy". The United Service Journal and Naval and Military Magazine. London, England.: H. Colburn and R. Bentley (1): 442. 1833.
  7. Smith, Graham (19 September 2015). "Queen Victoria's Fleet, 1837". www.naval-history.net. G.Smith. Retrieved 11 November 2019.

Sources

  • Clarke, James Stanier; McArthur, John (2010). The Naval Chronicle: Volume 30, July–December 1813, Containing a General and Biographical History of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom with a Variety of Original Papers on Nautical Subjects. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781108018692.
  • Rodger, N.A.M. (2004), The Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain, 1649-1815. New York and London: W.W. Norton and Company. ISBN 9780393060508.