Jamaica Squadron

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Jamaica Squadron
Flag of the Blue Squadron 1801-1864.png
Blue Ensign of the final
Commander-in-Chief, Jamaica in 1823
Active1655-1823
CountryKingdom of Great Britain Kingdom of Great Britain
BranchRed Ensign of Great Britain and Red Squadron 1707 to 1800.png Royal Navy
TypeSquadron
RoleConvoy Protection, and Patrolling
Part ofJamaica Station
Garrison/HQPort Royal, Jamaica


The Jamaica Squadron [1] was a naval formation of constituent ships assigned to the Jamaica Station from 1655 to 1823. The squadron received shore support from Jamaica Dockyard and Port Antonio Dockyard.

History

In June 1708 the squadron took part in a confrontation with the Spanish treasure fleet during the War of Spanish Succession. During the American Revolutionary War the West Indies was a theater of naval operations, mainly towards the end of the conflict.[2] During the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, the French Navy did not permanently station a fleet in Caribbean, certainly after the loss of Martinique.[3] British naval forces in the Caribbean were divided into two commands, one for Jamaica and the other for the Leeward Islands.[4] The Jamaica Squadron was based at Port Royal. Its primary role was to engage in convoy duties in the Western Caribbean and stop privateers operating in the area.[5]

Composition of the Squadron

Admiral Sir Charles Knowles' Jamaica Squadron engaging a well-matched Spanish adversary off the Tortuga Banks as the latter prepares to make a run for the safety of Havana, 1st October 1748 oil on canvas by Thomas Craskell.

1708

Royal Navy Blue Ensign 1707 to 1750.gif Squadron Ensign 1708.
Rear-Admiral of the Blue Sir Charles Wager commanding.[6]

# Ship Type Guns Notes/Ref
1. HMS Assistance Fourth-Rate Frigate 40 [7]
2. HMS Scarborough Sixth-Rate, Frigate 24 [8]
3. HMS Dunkirk Prize Sixth-Rate Frigate 24 [9]
4. HMS Expedition Third-Rate 70 Flagship.[10]
5. HMS Kingston Fourth-Rate Frigate 50 [11]
6. HMS Portland Fourth-Rate, Frigate 50 [12]
7. HMS Scarborough Fifth-Rate, Frigate 32 [13]
8. HMS Severn Fourth-Rate 50 [14]
9. HMS Windsor Fourth-Rate 60 [15]

1741

Royal Navy White Ensign 1750 to 1799.gif Squadron Ensign January 1741.
Vice-Admiral of the White Edward Vernon commanding.[16]
Rear-Admiral of the Red Sir Chaloner Ogle second-in-command.[17]

# Rate Ship Types Total Notes/Ref
1. Third-Rate Ships-of-the Line 15 [18]
2. Fourth-Rate Ships-of-the Line 19 [19]
3. Fifth-Rate Frigates 3 [20]
4. Sixth-Rate Frigates 6 [21]
5. Unrated Sloops 3 [22]
6. Other Cutters/Schooner 15 [23]
6. Total Ships 61 [24]

1773

Red Ensign of Great Britain and Red Squadron 1707 to 1800.png Squadron Ensign 1773.
Included:[25]

Rear-Admiral of the Red George Rodney commanding.

# Ship Type Guns Notes/Ref
1. HMS Achilles Fourth-Rate 60 [26]
2. HMS Carysfort Sixth-Rate, Frigate 28 [27]
3. HMS Diana Fifth-Rate, Frigate 32 [28]
4. HMS Diligence Sloop-of-War 10 [29]
5. HMS Ferret Sloop-of-War 14 [30]
6. HMS Garland Sixth-Rate, Post Ship 24 [31]
7. HMS Lowestoffe Fifth-Rate, Frigate 32 [32]
8. HMS Portland Fourth-Rate 50 Flagship.[33]
9. HMS Princess Amelia Third-Rate 80 [34]
10. HMS Seaford Sixth-Rate, Frigate 20 [35]
11. HMS Zephyr Sloop-of-War 15 [36]

1778

Royal Navy White Ensign 1750 to 1799.gif Squadron Ensign 1778.
Included:[37]

Vice-Admiral of the White Clark Gayton commanding.

# Ship Type Guns Notes/Ref
1. HMS Antelope Fourth-Rate 54 Flagship.[38]
2. HMS Aeolus Fifth-Rate, Frigate 32 [39]
3. HMS Atalanta Sloop-of-War 14 [40]
4. HMS Bristol Fourth-Rate 50 [41]
5. HMS Camel Store Ship 26 [42]
6. HMS Chameleon Sloop-of-War 14 [43]
7. HMS Cupid [44]
8. HMS Diligence Sloop-of-War 8 [45]
9. HMS Druid Sloop-of-War 16 [46]
10. HMS Glasgow Sixth-Rate, Post Ship 20 [47]
11. HMS Hind Sixth-Rate, Frigate 24 [48]
12. HMS Hornet Sloop-of-War 14 [49]
13. HMS Hound Sloop-of-War 14 [50]
14. HMS Lowestoffe Fifth-Rate, Frigate 32 [51]
15. HMS Lynx Sloop-of-War 16 [52]
16. HMS Niger Fifth-Rate, Frigate 32 [53]
17. HMS Ostrich Sloop-of-War 14 [54]
18. HMS Porcupine Sixth-Rate, Post Ship 24 [55]
19. HMS Porpoise Sloop-of-War 16 [56]
20. HMS Racehorse Sloop-of-War 16 [57]
21. HMS Ruby Third-Rate 64 [58]
22. HMS Southampton Fifth-Rate, Frigate 32 [59]
23. HMS Sylph Sloop-of-War 14 [60]
24. HMS Stork Sloop-of-War 10 [61]
25. HMS West Florida Sloop-of-War 12 [62]
26. HMS Winchelsea Fifth-Rate, Frigate 32 [63]

1783

Red Ensign of Great Britain and Red Squadron 1707 to 1800.png Squadron Ensign January to August 1783.
Royal Navy Blue Ensign 1750 to 1799.gif Squadron Ensign August to December 1783.
Included:[64].
Vice-Admiral of the Red Joshua Rowley commanding to Jan-Aug 1783. Vice-Admiral of the Blue James Gambier commanding from Aug-Dec 1783.

90 Guns HMS London (1766) was flag ship of the Jamaica Squadron 1782-1783. Credit: National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London
# Ship Type Guns Notes/Ref
1. HMS Actaeon Fifth-Rate 44 [65]
2. HMS Admiral Barrington Fifth-Rate, Frigate 32
3. HMS Ajax Third-Rate 74
4. HMS Alarm Fifth-Rate Frigate 32
5. HMS Alcide Third-Rate 74
6. HMS Alfred Third-Rate 74
7. HMS America Fourth-Rate 60
8. HMS Ariel Sloop-of-War 16
9. HMS Arrogant Third-Rate 74
10. HMS Arrow Sloop-of-War 20 [66]
11. HMS Badger Brig 12
12. HMS Barfleur Second-Rate 90
13. HMS Bedford Third-Rate 74
14. HMS Belliqueux Third-Rate 64
15. HMS Camilla Sixth-Rate, Post Ship 20
16. HMS Childers Sloop-of-War 14
17. HMS Diamond Fifth-Rate, Frigate 32
18. HMS Du Guay Trouin Sloop Privateer 18
19. HMS Duc d’Esisac Sloop Privateer 16
20. HMS Endeavour Schooner 14 [67]
21. HMS Endymion Fifth-Rate, Frigate 44
22. HMS Fox Fifth-Rate, Frigate 32
23. HMS Jamaica Sloop 16
24. HMS Fortune Sloop-of-War 10
25. HMS Licorne Licorne-Class Frigate 32 captured French ship.
26. HMS London Second-Rate 90 Flagship
27. HMS L’Aimables Brig ? captured French ship
28. HMS Magicienne Fifth-Rate, Frigate 26 captured French ship.
29. HMS Marlborough Third-Rate 74
30. HMS Nemesis Sixth-Rate, Frigate 28 [68]
31. HMS Pegasus Third-Rate 74 captured French ship.
32. HMS Porcupine Sixth-Rate, Post Ship 24
33. HMS Port Royal Sloop 14 captured French ship.
34. HMS Post Boy ? ?
35. HMS Preston Fourth-Rate 50
36. HMS Prince George Second-Rate 98
37. HMS Prince William Second-Rate 64 captured Spanish ship.
38. HMS Proserpine Sixth-Rate, Frigate 28
39. HMS Prothee Third-Rate 64 captured French ship.
40. HMS Racehorse Sloop-of-War 16 [69]
41. HMS Repulse Third-Rate 64
42. HMS Salamander Fire Ship Example Sold in 1783 became merchant ship
43. HMS Santa Margarita Fifth-Rate, Frigate 36
44. HMS Shrewsbury Third-Rate 74 condemned and scuttled same year
45. HMS Tartar Sixth-Rate, Frigate 28
46. HMS Tobago Brig-Sloop 20 captured American ship
47. HMS Torbay Second-Rate 90 renamed from HMS Neptune (1683)
48. HMS Ulysses Fifth-Rate, Frigate 48
49. HMS Valiant Third-Rate 74
50. HMS Whitby Store Ship 12 [70]

1788

Red Ensign of Great Britain and Red Squadron 1707 to 1800.png Squadron Ensign 1788.
Included:[71]

Commodore Distinction Lord Alan Gardner commanding

# Ship Type Guns Notes/Ref
1. HMS Alert Sloop-of-War 14 [72]
2. [HMS Amphion Fifth-Rate, Frigate 32
3. HMS Astraea Fifth-Rate, Frigate 32
4. HMS Aurora Sixth-Rate, Frigate 28
5. HMS Calypso Sloop-of-War 16 [73]
6. HMS Cygnet Ship Sloop 14
7. HMS Europa Third-Rate 64
8. HMS Expedition Fifth-Rate, Frigate 44 Flagship

1790

Royal Navy Blue Ensign 1750 to 1799.gif Squadron Ensign.
Included:[74].
Rear-Admiral of the Blue Philip Affleck commanding.

# Ship Type Guns Notes/Ref
1. HMS Advice Cutter 10 [75]
2. [HMS Alert Brig Sloop 14
3. HMS Astraea Fifth-Rate, Frigate 32
4. HMS Amphion Fifth-Rate, Frigate 32
5. HMS Brune Fifth-Rate, Frigate 30 captured French Ship
6. HMS Calypso Sloop-of-War 16 [76]
7. HMS Centurion Fourth-Rate 50 Flagship
8. HMS Diana Fifth-Rate, Frigate 32
9. HMS Juno Fifth-Rate, Frigate 32
10. HMS Liberty Brig 14 originally a cutter
11. HMS Serpent Ship Sloop 14

1793

Royal Navy Blue Ensign 1750 to 1799.gif Squadron Ensign.
Vice-Admiral of the Blue Philip Affleck commanding included.[77][78]

74 gun Third Rate HMS Hannibal (1786) depicted here flying the ensign of the Red Squadron was flagship of Vice-Admiral of the Blue Philip Affleck commanding the Jamaica Squadron, Credit: Galerie du Crabe, Granville, France
# Ship Type Guns Notes/Ref
1. HMS Advice Cutter 10 [79]
2. HMS Alligator Sixth-Rate, Frigate 28
3. HMS Europa Fourth-Rate 50
4. HMS Falcon Brig Sloop 14
5. HMS Fly Ship Sloop 14
6. HMS Flying Fish Schooner 6
7. HMS Goelan Sloop 14 captured French ship.
8. HMS Hannibal Third-Rate 74 Flagship
9. HMS Helena Sloop 14
10. HMS Hermione Fifth-Rate, Frigate 32 [80]
11. HMS Hound Sloop 16
12. HMS Hyaena Sixth-Rate, Post Ship 24
13. HMS Magicienne Fifth-Rate, Frigate 32 Captured French ship
14. HMS Mosquito Schooner 4 Captured French ship
15. HMS Penelope Fifth-Rate, Frigate 32
16. HMS Proserpine Sixth-Rate, Frigate 28
17. HMS Serpent Ship Sloop 16
18. HMS Success Fifth-Rate, Frigate 32
19. HMS Triton Sixth-Rate, Frigate 28 [81]

References

  1. Bradley, Peter T. (1999). "5: Jamaica Squadron". British Maritime Enterprise in the New World: From the Late Fifteenth to the Mid-eighteenth Century. New York, New York, United States.: Simon & Schuster. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-7734-7866-4.
  2. Fremont-Barnes, Gregory (2007). The Royal Navy 1793-1815: Battle Orders. Wellingborough: Osprey Publishing. pp. 17–18. ISBN 9781846031380.
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  6. Schomberg, Isaac (1802). Naval Chronology, Or an Historical Summary of Naval and Maritime Events from the Time of the Romans, to the Treaty of Peace 1802: With an Appendix. London: T. Egerton. p. 183.
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Bibliography

  1. Convertito, Coriann (11 August 2011). "The Health of British Seamen in the West Indies, 1770 - 1806": Submitted as a Thesis for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy" (PDF). pdfs.semanticscholar.org. Exeter: University of Exeter.
  2. Fremont-Barnes, Gregory (2007). The Royal Navy 1793-1815: Battle Orders. Wellingborough: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9781846031380.
  3. Rodger, N.A.M. (2007). "Fleets: January 1741 War with Spain". The command of the ocean : a naval history of Britain 1649-1815. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 9780713994117.
  4. Schomberg, Isaac (1802). Naval Chronology, Or an Historical Summary of Naval and Maritime Events from the Time of the Romans, to the Treaty of Peace 1802: With an Appendix. London: T. Egerton.