Commander-in-Chief, North Sea

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Commander-in-Chief, North Sea
Ensign of the Royal Navy animated.gif
Ensign of the an Admiral of the White as last office holder.
Department of Admiralty
Reports toAdmiral of the Fleet
NominatorFirst Lord of the Admiralty
AppointerFirst Lord of the Admiralty
Subject to formal approval by the King-in-Council
Term lengthNot fixed , (usually 1-3 years)
Inaugural holderRear-Admiral of the Blue the Hon. John Byng
Formation1715–1815

The Commander-in-Chief, North Sea [1] was senior appointment and an operational command of the British Royal Navy originally based at Great Yarmouth from 1745 to 1802 then at Ramsgate from 1803 until 1815.[2]

The office holder commanded the North Sea Fleet [3]

History

The North Sea has traditionally been an important command from the 13th to 15th centuries there was an Admiral of the North based at Yarmouth that office ceased when it was unified with the new office of Admiral of England. During the 16th and 17th centuries Vice Admirals in the North Sea were appointed to the command of the North Sea Squadron though on an intermittent basis. From 1652-1654 Yarmouth used by the Royal Navy for stationing its fleets during the First Anglo-Dutch War[4]. A more permanent appointment was then established in 1745 the Commander-in-Chief, North Sea he had overall responsibility for the North Sea Fleet usually anchored at Yarmouth Roads.[5] The fleet is most well known for its key role in the Battle of Camperdown against the Dutch Navy on the 11 October 1797 which resulted in a decisive British victory. The fleet was also involved in trade protection with the advent of the looming Napoleonic Wars and later it turned to the blockading of enemy ports. The fleet also played an instrumental part in the British anti-invasion preparations of 1803–05 in response to Napoleon's planned invasion of the United Kingdom.

It would be in May 1804 that the North Sea Fleet under the Commander-in-Chief, North Sea Admiral of the White: George Elphinstone, Viscount Keith would reach its largest composition. It consisted of some 170–179 ships (according to sources given) and divided primarily between squadrons each commanded by competent admirals.[6][7]

The office was abolished in 1815 and its former duties were taken over by the Commander-in-Chief, at the Nore whose role and geographic area of command was re-defined by the Admiralty.

Office Holders

Included:

No fleet present 1784-1789

No fleet present 1791-1793

References

  1. Mace, Martin; Grehan, John (Nov 14, 2013). British Battles of the Napoleonic Wars 1793-1806: Despatched from the Front. Pen and Sword. p. 27. ISBN 9781473831421.
  2. Archives, The National. "Admiralty: Nore Station: Correspondence". discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk. The National Archives, 1805–1939, ADM 151. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
  3. Blake, Richard (2008). Evangelicals in the Royal Navy, 1775-1815: Blue Lights & Psalm-singers. Boydell Press. p. 133. ISBN 9781843833598.
  4. Davies, J. D. (2008). Pepys Navy: Ships, Men and Warfare 1649–89. Seaforth Publishing. p. 195. ISBN 9781783830220.
  5. Palmer, Charles John (1856). The History of Great Yarmouth, Designed as a Continuation of Manship's History of that Town. Louis Alfred Meall, The Quay. p. 275.
  6. Rodger, N.A.M. (2004). "Fleets:May 1804 Invasion Threat". The command of the ocean : a naval history of Britain 1649-1815. London: Allen Lane. pp. 615–617. ISBN 9780713994117.
  7. Rodger, N. A. M.; Dancy, Jeremiah Ross; Wilson, Evan (2016). Strategy and the Sea: Essays in Honour of John B. Hattendorf. Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer. p. 93. ISBN 9781783270989.
  8. "LETTERS FROM ADMIRALS ETC. - NORTH SEA". discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk. Kew, Surrey, England.: The National Archives UK. 1715–1815. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  9. The National Archives UK.
  10. The National Archives UK.
  11. Harrsion, Simon (2018). "The Hon. John Byng (1704-1757):Appointments". threedecks.org. S,. Harrison. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
  12. Harrsion, Simon (2018). "Thomas Smith (c.1707-1762):Appointments". threedecks.org. S. Harrsion. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
  13. Pettigrew, Thomas Joseph (1849). Memoirs of the Life of Vice-Admiral Lord Viscount Nelson. T. and W. Boone. p. 55.
  14. Harrsion, Simon (2018). "Sir Hyde Parker (1713/14-1783):Appointments". threedecks.org. S. Harrison. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
  15. O’Byrne, William R. (Feb 6, 2012). A Naval Biographical Dictionary - Volume 3. Andrews UK Limited. p. 1117. ISBN 9781781502815.
  16. Harrsion, Simon (2018). "Sir John Lockhart (1721–1790):Appointments". threedecks.org. S. Harrison. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
  17. Simon, Harrison (2018). "Mark Milbanke (1724-1805):Appointments". threedecks.org. S. Harrison. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
  18. Harrsion, Simon (2018). "Sir Samuel Hood (1724-1816):Appointments". threedecks.org. S. Harrison. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
  19. Harrison, Simon (2018). "Henry Harvey (1737–1810)". threedecks.org. S.Harrison. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
  20. Chambers, Robert; Thomson, Thomas (1855). A Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen: Crichton-Hamilton, John. Blackie. p. 165.
  21. Harrsion, Simon (2018). "Lord Adam Duncan (1731–1804):Appointments". threedecks.org. S. Harrison. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
  22. Clarke, James Stanier; McArthur, John (Sep 2, 2010). The Naval Chronicle: Volume 3, January-July 1800: Containing a General and Biographical History of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom with a Variety of Original Papers on Nautical Subjects. Cambridge University Press. p. 330. ISBN 9781108018425.
  23. Harrsion, Simon (2018). "Sir Archibald Dickson (c.1739–1803): Appointments". threedecks.org. S. Harrison. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
  24. (Viscount), Horatio Nelson Nelson; Maffeo, Steven E. (2007). Seize, Burn, Or Sink: The Thoughts and Words of Admiral Lord Horatio Nelson. Scarecrow Press. p. 597. ISBN 9780810857810.
  25. Harrison, Simon (2010–2018). "Sir George Keith Elphinstone (1745/46-1823): Appointments". threedecks.org. S. Harrison. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
  26. Marshall, John (Nov 18, 2010). Royal Naval Biography: Or, Memoirs of the Services of All the Flag-Officers, Superannuated Rear-Admirals, Retired-Captains, Post-Captains, and Commanders. Cambridge University Press. p. 145. ISBN 9781108022644.
  27. Harrison, Simon (2018). "Thomas Macnamara Russell (1743-1824):Appointments". threedecks.org. S.Harrison. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
  28. A New Biographical Dictionary, of 3000 Cotemporary Public Characters, British and Foreign, of All Ranks and Professions. G. B. Whittaker. 1835. p. 36.
  29. Harrison, Simon (2018). "Lord Edward Pellew (1757–1833). Appointments". threedecks.org. S. Harrison. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
  30. Clarke, James Stanier; McArthur, John (Sep 2, 2010). The Naval Chronicle: Volume 26, July-December 1811: Containing a General and Biographical History of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom with a Variety of Original Papers on Nautical Subjects. Cambridge University Press. p. 337. ISBN 9781108018654.
  31. Harrison, Simon (2018). "Sir William Young (1751–1821): Appointments". threedecks.org. S. Harrison. Retrieved 24 July 2019.