Mediterranean Station

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Mediterranean Station
Fort St. Angelo (1800-1912)
HMS Egmont (1912-1933)
HMS St Angelo (1934-1942)
HMS Nile (1942-1943)
HMS Hannibal (1943-1944)
HMS St Angelo (1945-1967)
Ensign of the Royal Navy animated.gif
Active1658-1967
CountryUnited Kingdom
BranchNaval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Royal Navy
TypeStation
Part ofDepartment of Admiralty
Garrison/HQPort Mahon, Minorca, (1708-1791)
Gibraltar and Malta (1791-1812)
Malta (1812-1939)
Alexandria, Egypt (1940-1943)
Algiers and Taranto (1943-1944)
Malta (1945-1967)
Main Naval FormationMediterranean Fleet
Commanders
In CommandCommander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Station

A Mediterranean Station was a major naval command area of the British Royal Navy usually under the Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Station. He was responsible for the conduct of operations within his designated area. It encompassed its major naval formation the Mediterranean Fleet at times also known as the Mediterranean Squadron,[1] The station would also include a combination of logistical support commands and shore commands such as a naval dockyard or naval base or naval air station.

History

The British Royal Navy was deployed around the world, divided into various fleets operating from a number of major regional stations, also known as commands. For command purposes each normally under an admiral these major stations were then further divided in subordinate commands also defined by the Department of Admiralty as stations. Within each station there would be operational sea commands such as a Service, Squadrons, Division, Fleet, Force or Flotilla's supporting these would be supported by Naval Bases that usually encompassed a Naval Barracks, Naval Dockyards, Naval Hospitals, Victualling Yard and so forth.

During World War I plans were put in place to separate the Mediterranean into specific areas of responsibility. The British were charged with responsibility for Gibraltar, Malta, Egyptian coast, and Aegean in August 1917 Vice Admiral Somerset Gough-Calthorpe became CinC, MF commanding all British forces in the Mediterranean. Overall allied command would remain under the control of the Allied Commander in Chief, who was the head of the French Navy. Vice-Admiral Somerset Gough-Calthorpe was also responsible for coordinating other allied forces in Mediterranean. British forces were divided into a number of sub-commands namely Gibraltar, Malta, the British Adriatic Squadron, the British Aegean Squadron, the Egypt Division and Red Sea and the Black Sea and Marmora Force.

In February 1943 the Fleet was divided into a command of ships and a command of ports & naval bases: Mediterranean Fleet: Commander-in-Chief Mediterranean Fleet, 15th Cruiser Squadron, Cdre. (D)

Levant Command: Commander-in-Chief, Levant, Alexandria, Malta, Port Said, Haifa, Bizerta, Tripoli, Mersa Matruh, Benghazi, Aden, Bone, Bougie, Philippeville C-in-C Levant was renamed C-in-C Levant and Eastern Mediterranean in late December 1943. In January 1944 the two separate commands were re-unified with the Flag Officer, Levant and East Mediterranean (FOLEM) reporting to the C-in-C Mediterranean

Naval HQ

Map of the Mediterranean Station 1939-1945, courtesy of Gordon Smith, https://www.naval-history.net/

Commander-in-Chief, the Mediterranean Sea (1654-1852)

Included:[2]

  1. General at Sea: Robert Blake, September 1654 – August 1657, (styled as Commander of the Fleet for the Mediterranean)
  2. Admiral of the Blue: Sir Thomas Allin, 1668 – 1669
  3. Admiral of the Blue: Sir George Rooke, August 1695 – 1696
  4. Vice-Admiral of the White: John Nevill, November 1696 – August 1697
  5. Admiral of the Fleet: Sir Cloudesley Shovell, 1702 – January 1707, (styled as Commander British Mediterranean Fleet)
  6. Admiral of the White: Sir John Leake, January 1707 – 1708
  7. Admiral of the White: George Byng 1708, (styled as Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Squadron)
  8. Admiral of the Blue: Sir John Norris, December 1709 – 1710
  9. Admiral of the White: Sir John Jennings, November 1710 – 1711
  10. Admiral of the White Sir James Wishart, December 1713– 1714
  11. Vice-Admiral of the Blue: John Baker, February 1714 – 1715
  12. Vice-Admiral of the Blue: Charles Cornewall, October 1716 – 1717
  13. Admiral of the White: George Byng, June 1718 – 1720, (styled as Commander of the British Mediterranean Fleet)
  14. Rear-Admiral of the White: Hon. George Clinton, April 1737 – May 1738
  15. Rear-Admiral of the Red: Nicholas Haddock May 1738 – December 1741
  16. Rear-Admiral of the White: Richard Lestock, November 1741 – December 1741
  17. Vice-Admiral of the Red: Thomas Mathews, March 1742
  18. Vice-Admiral of the White: Richard Lestock, December 1743 – 1744
  19. Vice-Admiral of the Blue: William Rowley, June 1744 – July 1745
  20. Vice-Admiral of the White: Henry Medley, July 1745 – August 1747
  21. Vice-Admiral of the Blue: Hon. John Byng, September 1747 – August 1748
  22. Rear-Admiral of the White: John Forbes, August 1748 – 1749,(as Commander-in-Chief in the Mediterranean)
  23. Rear-Admiral of the Blue: Charles Saunders, January 1757 – May 1757
  24. Admiral of the Blue Henry Osborn, May 1757 – April 1760
  25. Admiral of the Blue Edward Hawke, 1st Baron Hawke of Towton, July, 1757 – March 1758
  26. Admiral of the Blue The Hon. Edward Boscawen, 29 May, 1759 – 28 April 1760
  27. Vice-Admiral of the Blue Sir Charles Saunders, 28 April 1760 – 4 November, 1762
  28. Rear-Admiral of the Red Sir Peircy Brett 4 November, 1762 – 4 May 1763
  29. Rear-Admiral of the Blue, Lord Augustus John Hervey, 3rd Earl of Bristol, 4 May 1763 – 7 September, 1763
  30. Commodore Distinction Thomas Harrison 7 September, 1763 – 5 May, 1766
  31. Commodore Distinction Sir Richard Spry, 5 May, 1766 – 8 June, 1769
  32. Commodore Distinction Charles Proby, 8 June, 1769 – 26 November, 1770
  33. Vice-Admiral of the Blue Lord Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, 26 November, 1770 – 24 June, 1771
  34. Rear-Admiral of the Red Sir Peter Denis, 1st Baronet of St Mary's, 24 June, 1771 – 23 April, 1773
  35. Admiral of the Blue Charles Saunders 23 April, 1773 – 4 June 1774
  36. Rear-Admiral of the Red Robert Man, 4 June 1774 – 16 September, 1777, (VAdm of the White Dec. 1775)
  37. Rear-Admiral of the Red Robert Duff, 16 September, 1777 – 1780 (VAdm of the Blue Jan. 1778)
  38. Vice-Admiral of Blue Sir John Lindsay, 29 August 1783 – 22 July, 1785
  39. Commodore Distinction Phillips Cosby, 22 July, 1785 – 29 September, 1788
  40. Rear-Admiral of the White Joseph Peyton, 29 September, 1788 – 10, March, 1792
  41. Rear-Admiral of the Blue Samuel Granston Goodall, 10 March, 1792 – 13 March, 1793
  42. Vice-Admiral of the Red Sir Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood of Whitley, 13 March, 1793 — October 1794
  43. Vice-Admiral of the Red Sir William Hotham, 11st Baronet Hotham, October 1794 – 2 October 1795
  44. Admiral of the Blue Sir John Jervis, Viscount St Vincent, 2 October 1795 – November, 1799, (Adm of the White Feb, 1799)
  45. Vice-Admiral of the Red Sir George Keith Elphinstone, 1st Viscount Keith, November 1799 – 1802, (Adm of the Blue Jan, 1801)
  46. Vice-Admiral of the Blue Lord Horatio Nelson, 1st Baron Nelson of the Nile and of Hilborough, May 1803 – 21 October, 1805, (VAdm of the White Apr, 1805)
  47. Vice-Admiral of the Blue Lord Cuthbert Collingwood, 1st Baron Collingwood, of Caldburne and Hethpool, 21 October, 1805 – 17 March 1810, (VAdm of the Red Nov, 1805)
  48. Admiral of the Blue Sir Charles Cotton, 5th Baronet, 17 March 1810 – May, 1811
  49. Vice-Admiral of the Red Lord Edward Pellew, 1st Earl Exmouth, May, 1811 – June, 1814, (Adm of the Blue Jun, 1814)
  50. Rear-Admiral of the White Sir Charles Vinicombe Penrose, 1814 – 1815
  51. Vice-Admiral Lord Exmouth, 1815 – 1816
  52. Rear-Admiral of the White Sir Charles Vinicombe Penrose, 1816 – 1818
  53. Rear-Admiral of the Red Sir Thomas Francis Fremantle, 1818 – 1820, (VAdm of the Blue Aug, 1819)
  54. Vice-Admiral Blue Sir Graham Moore, 1820 – 1823
  55. Vice-Admiral Blue Sir Harry Burrard-Neale, 1823 – December, 1826
  56. Vice-Admiral Blue Sir Edward Codrington, December, 1826 – 1828
  57. Rear-Admiral of the White Sir Pulteney Malcolm, 1828 – 30 March 1831
  58. Vice-Admiral Blue Henry Hotham, 30 March 1831 – 3 May 1833
  59. Vice-Admiral Blue Sir Pulteney Malcolm, 3 May 1833 – 18 December 1833
  60. Vice-Admiral of the White Josias Rowley, 18 December 1833 – 9 February 1837
  61. Admiral of the Red, Sir Robert Stopford, 9 February 1837 – 14 October 1841
  62. Vice-Admiral of the Red Edward William Campbell Rich Owen, 14 October 1841 – 27 February 1845
  63. Vice-Admiral Blue William Parker, 27 February 1845 – 17 January 1852

Second-in-Command, Mediterranean Sea (1702-1841)

Included:[3]

  1. Rear-Admiral of the Red Sir George Byng . 1702 - 1707.
  2. Vice-Admiral of the Blue Sir John Baker, 12 November 1709 - 1711.[4]
  3. Rear-Admiral Charles Saunders, 7 January 1756 - January 1757.
  4. Rear-Admiral of the Red Sir Peircy Brett, 21 October, 1762.
  5. Rear-Admiral of the Blue Lord Augustus John Hervey (3rd Earl of Bristol) 31 March, 1775.
  6. Rear-Admiral of the Blue John Holloway, 1793-1794
  7. Vice-Admiral of the Blue Hon. George Keith Elphinstone, 1798 – 1799.
  8. Commodore Distinction William Sidney Smith, 1799 - 1801
  9. Rear-Admiral of the Red Richard Hussey Bickerton, 1804 – 1805
  10. Vice-Admiral of the Blue John Thomas Duckworth, 1805 – 1808
  11. Vice-Admiral of the Blue Richard Goodwin Keats, 1811 – 1812
  12. Vice-Admiral of the Blue William Sidney Smith, 1812 – 1814
  13. Vice-Admiral of the White Charles Elphinstone Fleeming, May 1815 - May 1816.
  14. Rear-Admiral of the Red Sir John Acworth Ommanney, July, 1840 – October, 1841

Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Station (1852-1939)

  1. Rear-Admiral Sir James Whitley Deans Dundas, 17 January, 1852 – January, 1855, (VAdm. 17 December 1852)
  2. Rear-Admiral The Right Hon Edmund Lyons. The Lord Lyons, January, 1855 – 22 February, 1858, (VAdm. 19 March 1857)
  3. Vice-Admiral Sir Arthur Fanshawe, 22 February, 1858 – 19 April, 1860
  4. Vice-Admiral Sir William Fanshawe Martinn, 19 April, 1860 – 20 April, 1863
  5. Vice-Admiral Sir Robert Smart, 20 April, 1863 – 28 April, 1866
  6. Vice-Admiral Lord Clarence Paget, 28 April, 1866 – 28 April, 1869
  7. Vice-Admiral Sir Alexander Milne, 28 April, 1869 – 25 October, 1870
  8. Vice-Admiral Sir Hastings Reginald Yelverton, 28 April, 1869 – 13 January, 1874
  9. Vice-Admiral Sir James Robert Drummond, 13 January, 1874 – 15 January, 1877
  10. Vice-Admiral Sir Geoffrey Thomas Phipps Hornby, 5 January, 1877 – 5 February, 1880, (Adm. 15 June 1879)
  11. Vice-Admiral Frederick Beauchamp Paget Seymour, 5 February, 1880 – 7 February, 1883, (Adm. May 6, 1882)
  12. Admiral The Rt. Hon. Lord John Hay, 7 February, 1883 – 5 February, 1886
  13. Vice-Admiral H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh, 5 February, 1886 – 11 March, 1889, (Adm. Oct. 18, 1887)
  14. Vice-Admiral Sir Anthony Hiley Hoskins, 11 March, 1889 (Adm. 20 June 1891)
  15. Vice-Admiral Sir George Tryon, 20 August, 1891 – 22 June, 1893
  16. Admiral Sir Michael Culme-Seymour, Bart., 29 June, 1893 – 10 December, 1896
  17. Admiral Sir John Ommanney Hopkins, 10 November, 1896 – 13 July, 1899
  18. Admiral Sir John A. Fisher, 1 July, 1899
  19. Admiral Sir Compton E. Domvile, 1 May, 1902 – 10 June, 1905
  20. Admiral The Rt. Hon. Lord Charles Beresford, 1 May, 1905
  21. Admiral Sir Charles C. Drury, 20 March, 1907
  22. Admiral The Hon. Sir Assheton G. Curzon-Howe, 20 November, 1908 – 30 April, 1910
  23. Admiral Sir Edmund S. Poë, 30 April, 1910 – 1 July, 1912
  24. Admiral Sir A. Berkeley Milne, Bart., 1 June, 1912 – 24 August, 1914
  25. Vice-Admiral The Hon. Sir Somerset A. Gough-Calthorpe, 8 August, 1917
  26. Admiral Sir John M. de Robeck, Bart., 26 July, 1919 – 15 May, 1922
  27. Admiral Sir Osmond de B. Brock, 15 May, 1922
  28. Admiral Sir Roger J. B. Keyes, Bart., 8 June, 1925 – 1 May, 1928
  29. Admiral Sir Frederick L. Field, 8 June, 1928 – 27 May, 1930
  30. Admiral Sir Alfred E. M. Chatfield, 27 May, 1930 – 31 October, 1932
  31. Admiral Sir William W. Fisher, 30 September, 1932 – 20 March, 1936
  32. Admiral Sir Alfred D. P. R. Pound, 20 March, 1936 – 31 May, 1939

Commander-in -Chief, Mediterranean Fleet (1939-1943)

  1. Admiral Sir Andrew B. Cunningham, 1 June, 1939 – March, 1942
  2. Acting Admiral Henry D. Pridham-Wippell, 1 April, 1942 – 1 August, 1942 (temporary)
  3. Acting Admiral Sir Henry H. Harwood, 22 April, 1942 – 21 May, 1943
  4. Admiral Sir Andrew B. Cunningham, 20 February, 1943 – 15 October, 1943

Commander-in -Chief, Mediterranean Station (1943-1946)

  1. Admiral Sir John H. D. Cunningham, 15 October, 1943 – 23 April, 1946

Commander-in -Chief, Mediterranean Fleet (1946-1948)

  1. Admiral Sir Algernon Usborne Willis, 23 April, 1946 - 14 May, 1948

Commander-in -Chief, Mediterranean Station (1948-1952)

  1. Admiral Sir Arthur John Power, 14 May, 1948 – May, 1950.[5]
  2. Admiral Sir John Hereward Edelston, May, 1950 - 18 May, 1952.[6]

Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean (1952-1954)

  1. Admiral Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten, 18 May, 1952 - 10 December, 1954.[7]

Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Station (1954-1958)

  1. Admiral Sir Guy Grantham, 10 December, 1954 – 11 January, 1957.[8]
  2. Admiral Sir Ralph Alan Bevan Edwards, 11 January, 1957 – 11, November, 1958.[9]

Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean (1958-1967)

  1. Admiral Sir Charles Edward Lambe, 11, November, 1958 – 2 February, 1959.[10]
  2. Admiral Sir Alexander Noel Campbell Bingley, 2 February, 1959 – 30 June 1961. (also Commander-in-­Chief, Allied Forces Mediterranean).
  3. Admiral Sir Deric Holland-Martin, 30 June, 1961 – 1 February, 1964. (ditto).[11]
  4. Admiral Sir John Graham Hamilton, 1 February, 1964 – 5 June, 1967.. (ditto).[12]

Second-in-Command, Mediterranean Station (1861-1958)

Chief of Staff, Mediterranean Station (1891-1967)

References

  1. Watson, Dr Graham. "Royal Navy Organisation and Ship Deployment, Inter-War Years: 1914-1918: INTRODUCTION". www.naval-history.net. Gordon Smith, 27 October 2015. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  2. Harrison, Simon (2010–2020). "Commander-in-Chief at The Mediterranean Sea". threedecks.org. Cy Harrison. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  3. Harrison, Simon (2010–2020). "Second in Command at The Mediterranean Sea". threedecks.org. Cy Harrison. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  4. Laughton, John Knox. "Baker John (1661-1716)". Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900. wikisource. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  5. Houterman, Hans; Koppes, Jeroen. "World War II unit histories & RN officers: P." www.unithistories.com. Netherlands: Houterman and Koppes. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  6. Houterman, Hans; Koppes, Jeroen. "World War II unit histories & RN officers: E." www.unithistories.com. Netherlands: Houterman and Koppes. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  7. Houterman, Hans; Koppes, Jeroen. "World War II unit histories & RN officers: M." www.unithistories.com. Netherlands: Houterman and Koppes. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  8. Houterman, Hans; Koppes, Jeroen. "Royal Navy (RN) Officers 1939-1945  --  G". www.unithistories.com. Netherlands: Houterman and Koppes. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  9. Houterman, Hans; Koppes, Jeroen. "World War II unit histories & RN officers: E." www.unithistories.com. Netherlands: Houterman and Koppes. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  10. Houterman, Hans; Koppes, Jeroen. "World War II unit histories & officers: L." www.unithistories.com. Netherlands: Houterman and Koppes. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  11. Houterman, Hans; Koppes, Jeroen. "World War II unit histories & officers: H." www.unithistories.com. Netherlands: Houterman and Koppes. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  12. Houterman, Hans; Koppes, Jeroen. "World War II unit histories & officers: H." www.unithistories.com. Netherlands: Houterman and Koppes. Retrieved 17 October 2020.