Channel Squadron (Navy Royal)

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Channel Squadron
Tudor Green Ensign 1485 to 1603.gif
Flag of the Navy Royal 1485 to 1603
Active1512–1601
CountryFlag Kingdom of England.gif Kingdom of England
BranchTudor Green Ensign 1485 to 1603.gif Navy Royal
TypeSquadron
RoleCruising, and Patroling
Part ofRoyal Navy
Garrison/HQPortsmouth, Hampshire, England
Plymouth, Devon, England
Commanders
FirstVice-Admiral Sir Edward Howard
LastRear-Admiral, Sir Robert Mansell
Notable
commanders
Vice-Admiral, Sir William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham
Vice-Admiral Sir Francis Drake

The Channel Squadron [1] also referred to as the Western Squadron [2] (1512-1601) was a series of temporary naval formations first formed in under the Navy Royal during the sixteenth century, then later the Parliamentary Navy in the mid-17th century and again at the start of the 18th century as part of the Royal Navy.

The squadron was usually commanded by the Vice-Admiral in the Channel.

History

Initially the English Navy had organized its fleet into sub-commands namely squadrons from at least 1205.[3] and certainly during the 16th century. A channel squadron was operating out of Portsmouth from around 1523. By 1560 The Navy Royal had four functioning squadrons one in the Channel (Western), and the Irish Sea, Narrow Seas (Eastern) and another in the North Sea.[4]. During the Spanish Armada campaign a detached Western squadron was reassigned from the main English Fleet and sent to Plymouth under the command of Vice-Admiral Sir Francis Drake.[5] From 1509 until 1603 Vice-Admirals commanding particular fleets or squadrons were styled so as to denote he they were junior to the Lord Admiral of England these flag officers were formally appointed by the crown.[6]

From 1709 the Channel Squadron of the Royal Navy was administered and controlled out of Spithead, Hampshire, England under the command of Sir John Norris.[7]

In Command

Vice-Admiral in the Channel

Footnotes

  1. Hammer, Paul E. J. (2003). Elizabeth's Wars: War, Government and Society in Tudor England, 1544-1604. London: Macmillan International Higher Education. p. 203. ISBN 9780230629769.
  2. Martin, Colin (1999). The Spanish Armada: Revised Edition. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 41. ISBN 9781901341140.
  3. Rose, Susan (2013). "3:The Navy of England understanding the resources of the crown". England's Medieval Navy 1066-1509: Ships, Men & Warfare. Barnsley, England: Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 9781473853546.
  4. Corbett, Julian Stafford (1917). "The Navy of Elizabeth". Drake and the Tudor navy, with a history of the rise of England as a maritime power. London, England: London : Longmans, Green. p. 347.
  5. Hammer. p.203.
  6. Rodger, N.A.M. (1997). "Social History of Officers 1509-1603". The safeguard of the sea : a naval history of Britain. Vol 1., 660–1649. London, England: Penguin. p. 298. ISBN 9780140297249.
  7. Runyan, Timothy J. (1987). Ships, Seafaring, and Society: Essays in Maritime History. Detroit, Michigan, USA: Wayne State University Press. p. 176. ISBN 0814319912.

Bibliography

  • Archives, The National. "Commission and Warrant Book". discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk. National Archives UK, ADM 6/16 4 January 1742 – 18 September 1745.
  • Baumber, Michael (1989). General-at-sea : Robert Blake and the seventeenth-century revolution in naval warfare (1. publ. ed.). London: J. Murray. ISBN 9780719547065.
  • Beatson, Robert (1804). Naval and Military Memoirs of Great Britain, from 1727 to 1783. London, England: Longman, Hurst, Rees and Orme.
  • Corbett, Julian Stafford (1917). "The Navy of Elizabeth". Drake and the Tudor navy, with a history of the rise of England as a maritime power. London, England: London : Longmans, Green.
  • Harrison, Simon. "Commander-in-Chief at English Channel". threedecks.org. S. Harrison 2010-2018.
  • Heathcote, T.A. (2002). The British Admirals of the Fleet : 1734-1995 : a biographical dictionary (1. publ. in Great Britain. ed.). Barnsley: Cooper.ISBN 0850528356.
  • Knighton, edited by C.S.; Loades, David (2011). The Navy of Edward VI and Mary I. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate for the Navy Records Society. ISBN 9781409418474.
  • Naughton, John Knox (1904). Dictionary of National Biography: Howard, Edward (1477?-1513) (Vol 28 ed.). Smith, Elder & Co.
  • "NORRIS, Sir John (c.1671-1749), of Benenden, Kent, and St. Paul's, Covent Garden, London | History of Parliament Online". www.historyofparliamentonline.org. The History of Parliament Trust 1964-2017.
  • Palmer, Michael A. (2005). Command at Sea: Naval Command and Control Since the Sixteenth Century. Harvard, Mass, USA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674016811.
  • Runyan, Timothy J. (1987). Ships, Seafaring, and Society: Essays in Maritime History. Detroit, Michigan, USA: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0814319912.
  • Stewart, William (2009). Admirals of the World: A Biographical Dictionary, 1500 to the Present. McFarland. ISBN 9780786438099.