Bayonne Fleet

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Bayonne Fleet
Flag of Aquitaine.svg.png
Active1130 - 1451
AllegianceEngland Kingdom of England
BranchNavy Royal
TypeNaval Fleet
Garrison/HQBayonne, France

The Bayonne Fleet also called the Bayonnese Fleet or Bayonne Squadron was a series of temporary naval formations raised in the city of Bayonne, Duchy of Aquitaine, France during the Hundred Years' War from 1130 to 1451.

The command of the Bayonne fleet was usually vested in an Admiral or Vice-Admiral.[1]

History

In 1130 the King of Aragon Alfonso the Battler besieged the city without success. Bayonne came under English rule when Eleanor of Aquitaine married Henry II of England in 1152. This alliance gave Bayonne many commercial privileges. The Bayonnaises became carriers of Bordeaux wines and other south-western products like resin, ham, and woad to England Bayonne was then an important military base.

In 1177 King Richard separated the Viscounty of Labourd whose capital then became Ustaritz. Like many cities at the time, in 1215 Bayonne obtained the award of a municipal charter and was emancipated from feudal powers. On 12 April 1215 John, King of England, granted Bayonne a legal personality that would last throughout the Middle Ages and, to some extent, until the French Revolution.

The form of the charter resembled that of La Rochelle. According to Eugene Goyheneche, "the city is governed by the "Hundred Peers" who were actually a mayor, twelve deputies, twelve councilors, and seventy-five peers who were co-opted and proposed each year by the mayor for the king's choice. The mayor was head of the administrative, judiciary, and military: he had custody of the keys to the city and some mayors were admirals in the bayonnaise fleet. The king was represented by a marshal"

Bayonnaise industry at that time was dominated by shipbuilding: wood (oak, beech, chestnut from the Pyrenees, and pine from Landes) being overabundant. There was also maritime activity in providing crews for whaling, commercial marine or, and it was often so at a time when it was easy to turn any merchant ship into a warship, the English Royal Navy.For example a Bayonnise fleet participated in the Siege of Calais led by the English in 1346 which consisted of 15 vessels and 439 men.

In 1451 Jean de Dunois – a former companion at arms of Joan of Arc—captured the city returning it to French rule.

In Command

Admiral of the Bayonne Fleet

  1. 1295, Admiral: Berard de Sestas
  2. 1337-1338, Vice-Admiral: Peter de Puyano.[2]
  3. 1341, Vice-Admiral: Peter de Puyano.[3]
  4. 1346, Admiral: Peter Donyngan.[4]

Footnotes

  1. Clowes, Sir William Laird (1897). "Military History: 1154 to 1399". The Royal Navy: A History From the Earliest Times to the Present. Vol. I. London: Sampson Low, Marston and Company. p. 238.
  2. Clowes, Sir William Laird (1897). "Military History: 1154 to 1399". The Royal Navy: A History From the Earliest Times to the Present. Vol. I. London: Sampson Low, Marston and Company. p. 238.
  3. Clowes, Sir William Laird (1897). "Military History: 1154 to 1399". The Royal Navy: A History From the Earliest Times to the Present. Vol. I. London: Sampson Low, Marston and Company. p. 258.
  4. Nicolas, Sir Nicholas Harris (1847). A History of the Royal Navy: 1327-1422. London: R. Bentley. p. 527.

Bibliography

  1. Clowes, Sir William Laird (1897). The Royal Navy: A History From the Earliest Times to the Present. Vol. I. London: Sampson Low, Marston and Company.