Aquitaine Fleet

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Aquitaine Fleet
Flag of Aquitaine.svg.png
Flag of Aquitaine
Active1153 - 1422
AllegianceEngland Kingdom of England
BranchNavy Royal
TypeNaval Fleet
Garrison/HQToulouse, France

The Aquitaine Fleet was a series of temporary naval formations raised in the Duchy of Aquitaine, France during the Hundred Years' War from 1204 to 1458.

The command of the Aquitaine fleet was usually vested in an Admiral or Vice-Admiral.[1]

History

The Ramnulfids had become the dominant power in southwestern France by the end of the 11th century. By marriage rather than conquest, their possessions passed into the "Angevin Empire" under the English crown by 1153.

In 1337, King Philip VI of France reclaimed the fief of Aquitaine (essentially corresponding to Gascony) from Edward III of England. Edward in turn claimed the entire Kingdom of France as the only grandson of King Philip IV of France. This triggered the Hundred Years' War, in which both the Plantagenets and the House of Valois claimed the supremacy over Aquitaine. In 1360, both sides signed the Treaty of Bretigny, in which Edward renounced the French crown but remained sovereign Lord of Aquitaine (rather than merely duke). However, when the treaty was broken in 1369, both these English claims and the war resumed.

In 1362, King Edward III, as Lord of Aquitaine, made his eldest son Edward, Prince of Wales, Prince of Aquitaine. In 1390, King Richard II, son of Edward the Black Prince appointed his uncle John of Gaunt Duke of Aquitaine. That title passed on to John's descendants although they belonged to the crown because John of Gaunt's son, Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford, managed to successfully usurp the crown from Richard II, therefore 'inheriting' the title Lord of Aquitaine from his father, which was passed down to his descendants as they became Kings. His son, Henry V of England, ruled over Aquitaine as King of England and Lord of Aquitaine from 1400 to 1422.

He invaded France and emerged victorious at the siege of Harfleur and the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. He succeeded in obtaining the French crown for his family by the Treaty of Troyes in 1420. Henry V died in 1422, when his son Henry VI inherited the French throne at the age of less than a year; his reign saw the gradual loss of English control of France.

In Command

Vice-Admiral of the Aquitaine Fleet

  1. 1337, Vice-Admiral Nicholas Ususmaris.[2]

Footnotes

  1. Clowes, Sir William Laird (1897). "Military History: 1154 to 1399". The Royal Navy: A History From the Earliest Times to the Present. Vol. I. London: Sampson Low, Marston and Company. p. 238.
  2. Clowes, Sir William Laird (1897). "Military History: 1154 to 1399". The Royal Navy: A History From the Earliest Times to the Present. Vol. I. London: Sampson Low, Marston and Company. p. 238.

Bibliography

  1. Clowes, Sir William Laird (1897). The Royal Navy: A History From the Earliest Times to the Present. Vol. I. London: Sampson Low, Marston and Company.